chem notes 9-28 - H 1(aq Cl-1(aq-hydrated/solvated Cl/H...

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September 28, 2007 Dr. Stevens Gen. Chem. 1 Chapter 4: Aqueous Solutions: Objectives: 1. Identify electrolytes and non-electrolytes 2. Predict solid formation in precipitation reactions and write balanced equations 3. Write balanced equations for acids and bases 4. Write equations for redox reactions and determine oxidation numbers for all species 5. Calculate molarity of solutions 6. Determine mass/concentration of substances on titrations or gravimetric reactions. Aqueous (aq) Reactions: -water-based reactions -solute – dissolved (lesser amt.) -solvent – dissolver (greater amt.) -2 possibilities -solute stays intact (non-electrolyte) -ex: sugar -solute breaks into ions (electrolyte) -ex: salts -OBSERVABLE DIFFERENCES!!!! -non-electrolyte: no current -electrolyte: current -electrolytes: -soluble ionic salts -strong acids/bases -weak electrolytes: -slightly soluble ionic salts -weak acids/bases -water -non-electrolytes: -molecular compounds Strong acid example -HCl H2O
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Unformatted text preview: H+1(aq) + Cl-1(aq)-hydrated/solvated Cl-/H+ Acid/Base Properties: Acids-foods-vinegar (acetic acid)-citrus (citric acid)-soda pop (carbonic/phosphoric acid)-usu dissolve solids-increases H+ concentration-made from nonmetal oxide + H2O-strong acids - 100% electrolyte:-hydrochloric acid: HCl-nitric acid: HNO3-sulfuric acid:H2SO4-weak acids – 5-70% electrolytes:-acetic acid: CH3CoOH-phosphoric acid: H3PO4-sulfurous acid: H2SO3-some acids are monoprotic (1 H+), some are polyprotic (more than one H+)-H2SO4(parent acid) H2O H+ + HSO4-(conjugate/daughter) H2O H+ + H+ + SO4-2 Bases-cleaning products-soap (sodium hydroxide – lye)-bleach hypochlorite)-caffeine-usu form solids-increases OH- concentration-made from metal oxide + H2O-strong bases:-alkali metal + OH ion-KOH-LiOH-NaOH-weak bases:-all other metals + OH ion-Mg(OH)2-Fe(OH)2-NH3: ammonia-NaOH H2O Na(aq) + OH-(aq)-NH3 + H2O NH4OH H2O NH4+ + OH-...
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chem notes 9-28 - H 1(aq Cl-1(aq-hydrated/solvated Cl/H...

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