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psych 9-11 - Psychology 101 Terms and Concepts Neuron...

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September 11, 2007 Psychology 101 Terms and Concepts: Neuron Dendrite Axon Myelin sheath Action potential Synapse Neurotransmitters Endocrine system Hormones Camillo Golgi (1843-1926) -Accidentally knocks a block of brain into a dish of silver nitrate -Brain in dish lost for several weeks -Under the microscope, sees dark net-like blobs -only one in ten stained black (neuron) Greek 101 Soma – body -ORIGIN late 19 th century: from Greek soma ‘body’ Dendrite -ORIGIN early 18 th century: from French, from Greek dendrites ‘treelike,’ from dendron ‘tree.’ Axon -ORIGIN mid 19 th century (denoting the body axis): from Greek axon ‘axis.’ Neuron -Using an electrochemical process, cells of the nervous system are specialized to carry “messages” -The human brain has about 100 billion neurons—membrane surface area the equivalent of four soccer fields -neurons come in many different shapes and sizes -smallest neurons are only 4 microns wide whereas largest are 100 microns wide *1 micron = 1. x 10^-3 -similar to other cells in body +cell membrane, nucleus with genes, cytoplasm, mitochondria, etc. +protein synthesis, energy production, etc. -differences to other cells in the body +specialized extensions called dendrites and axons -dendrites: bring information to the cell body (soma) and axons take it away from the cell body (soma) +myelin sheath speeds neural impulse +communicate with each other through an electrochemical process
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+have specialized structures (synapses) and chemicals (neurotransmitters) I’ve Got It 1. What is the name of a nerve cell?
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