Exam Two Study Guide

Exam Two Study Guide - Exam II Study Guide Early American...

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Exam II Study Guide Early American poor laws o English Elizabethan Poor Law of 1601 : first piece of legislation establishing coherent, consistent public support for needy people through local taxes; first to establish categories of eligible recipients Dependent children- no relatives capable of supporting them were placed in service under whatever citizen placed the lowest bid for public reimbursement to provide the child’s care; boys served as apprentices until 24 th birthday, girls provided domestic help until they were 21 or married Impotent poor- included those who were physically/mentally unable to work; given indoor relief (placed inside institutions providing food and shelter called almshouses or poorhouses) or outdoor relief (offered the opportunity to live outside of the institution but receive material help in the form of food, clothing, and fuel) Able bodied poor- provided any substandard employment available and forced to work or suffer jail or other punishments, even death o 1662 Law of Settlement : established a notable new principle of social welfare service provision Residency requirement- potential aid recipients were required to establish that they had dwelled in some location for some designated time before they could receive assistance or benefits from the political body governing that location; conservative view o Speenhamland System (1795) : supplemented the income of all poor people so that everyone would have what was deemed the minimum income necessary for survival; no work incentives Work incentives- logical rewards/benefits that encourage people to work o English Poor Law Reforms of 1834 : reduced all outdoor relief and brought back workhouses as the only place where able-bodied people could receive benefits; 3 trends resulted from these reforms Public attitudes toward the poor became hostile and resentful The public came to blame the poor for their poverty Blaming the victim- ascribing fault to the people who are hurt, have problems beyond their control, have few resources, or have been victimized by some crime or unexpected circumstances Concept of being less eligible (idea that benefits should be lower than what the poorest working people could earn) Ways poor and mentally ill were dealt with in early American society o Colonists viewed poor as a natural part of the social order and the community; reflected institutional view of social welfare (society’s ongoing responsibility to provide its citizens with needed benefits and resources) o Communities demonstrated the concept of who was worthy versus unworthy to receive benefits Worthy poor : pitied, community found ways to care for them; families took turns housing the poor during the year; taxes on the poor were reduced; free medical attention to poor
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Exam II Study Guide o By the 1820’s and 1830’s people were beginning to view poverty as a social problem and a potential source of crime, social unrest, and long term dependence;
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Exam Two Study Guide - Exam II Study Guide Early American...

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