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Phil 101 final_study_guide - Final Study Guide 1 “S knows...

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Final Study Guide 1. “S knows that P” (for some agent S and some truth-bearer P) only if: a. S believes (that) P b. S is justified in believing P c. P is true. i. When “S knows P” = true 1. Example: “I believe that John loves Mary.” a. This is false if there is no fact that the sentence is b. your belief is false. c. This is true is it corresponds to facts. 2. The theory of truths should allow for the possibility of the opposite. a. Things that are possibly true are also possibly false. b. The correspondence with facts is what constitutes the nature of truths. c. Russell can’t think that facts correspond to the meaning of sentences. 3. Hume’s “matters of fact” and “relations of ideas” (objects of human reason) a. Matters of Fact i. The contrary of every matter of fact is still possible. ii. It can never imply a contradiction and it is conceived by the mind with the same distinction that reality is conceived. iii. Arise from experience – a priori. iv. This is found on matters of cause and effect – and cause and effect are discoverable not by reason, but by experience. v. What the world is like, not how ideas are related. vi. What justifies that the sun will rise tomorrow? vii. Ex: It is cold today. b. Relations of Ideas i. Truths that simply reflect the way ideas are related to each other and don’t depend on whether the ideas actually apply to anything. ii. These truths are discoverable by the operation of thought and do not depend on anything that exists in the universe. iii. Purely mathematical – sciences of geometry, arithmetic, and algebra. iv. Every affirmation which is either intuitively or demonstratively certain. v. Ex: 2 + 2 = 4 – there is no possible contrary, this is a proposition which expresses a relation between these two numbers. vi. These kinds of propositions are discoverable just by thought, not experience, without dependence on anything that exists in the universe. 4. “Problem of Induction” by Hume a. You can only know from past experiences – Hume says you can’t do this.
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i. Just because something happened in the past, doesn’t mean it will happen again in the future. ii. People cannot infer things based on observation 1. “We often seem to infer from observation that some sample of a population has a certain attribute and then conclude that the next members of the population we encounter will have the same attribute.” 2. Or when you eat a piece of bread you conclude, from the many times in the past that the bread nourished you, that it will also nourish you this time. iii. It isn’t necessary, analytic, or a priori truth that the next piece of bread you eat will be like the ones you have eaten before. 5. Bentham’s “hedonistic calculus” – or pleasure calculus (how you determine the level of pleasure and pain) a. To a person considered by himself , the value of pleasure or pain considered by itself , will be greater or less based on these four circumstances: i. Its intensity – how intense the pleasure is.
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