Chapter 7 Outline.pdf - Chapter 7: Deviance and Social...

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Chapter 7: Deviance and Social ControlYouTube VideosDeviance: Crash Course Sociology #18Theory & Deviance: Crash Course Sociology #19Crime: Crash Course Sociology #20Learning Objectives1.Analyze what deviance is, and contrast its functions and dysfunctions.2.Summarize traditional views of deviance and of deviants.3.Describe the relationship between deviance and social control.4.Discuss the relative nature of deviance.5.Describe the theories explaining deviance.6.Compare the sociological theories explaining deviance.7.Examine the social consequences of deviance.Key Terms and DefinitionsDevianceVariation from a set of norms or shared social expectationsAbsolutist viewThe view that certain behaviors are deviant regardless of the social context in which they occurMoralist viewThe view that norm violations are deviant because they are morally wrongMedical viewThe view that deviance is essentially pathological evidence that a society is unhealthyMedicalization of devianceThe transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical conditionStatistical viewA perspective on deviance that defines as deviant any variation from a statistical normInternal means of controlLearned patterns of control that exist in the minds of individuals and make them want to conform tosocial normsExternal means of controlPressures or sanctions that are applied to members of society by others to encourage them to conformSanctionsRewards and punishments that are used to encourage proper behaviorPositive sanctionsActions that encourage individuals to continue a behaviorNegative sanctionsActions that discourage individuals from a particular behaviorInformal external controlsPositive and negative controls such as smiling, frowning, and high-fiving in order to influence ourbehavior
Chapter 7: Deviance and Social ControlFormal external controlsThe systems created by society specifically to control deviance, such as those that occur in a courtroomRelativistic view of devianceThe view that deviance can be interpreted only in the sociocultural context in which it occursBlaming the victimA type of reasoning that implies that social problems are caused by the people facing themStrain theoriesTheories of deviance suggesting that the experience of socially induced strain, such as anomie, forcespeople to engage in deviant activitiesAnomieThe incongruence between a society’s emphasis on attaining certain goals and the availability oflegitimate, institutionalized means of reaching those goals; often gives rise to devianceConflict theoryA social theory that views conflict as inevitable and natural and as a significant cause of social changeCultural transmission theoryThe theory that a community’s deviance may be transmitted to newcomers through learning andsocializationDifferential association theoryThe theory that deviance results when individuals have more contact with groups that define deviancefavorably than with groups that define it unfavorablySocial learning theoryThe theory that deviant and conforming behaviors are strongly influenced by the consequences thatfollow themDifferential reinforcementThe view that the acquisition and persistence of either deviant or conforming behavior is a function ofwhat behaviors have been rewarded or punishedSociocultural learning theories

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