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Chapter 2: The Development of SociologyYouTube VideosMajor Sociological Paradigms: Crash Course Sociology #2Karl Marx & Conflict Theory: Crash Course Sociology #6Emile Durkheim on Suicide & Society: Crash Course Sociology #5Max Weber & Modernity: Crash Course Sociology #9Harriet Martineau & Gender Conflict Theory: Crash Course Sociology #8Dubois & Race Conflict: Crash Course Sociology #7Learning Objectives1.Describe the origins of sociology.2.Summarize the contributions of the major theorists in sociology (i.e. Comte, Marx, Durkheim,Weber, Addams, DuBois).3.Trace the development of sociology in America, including the major theoretical schools and theiradvocates.4.Compare the major ideas and concepts of structural functionalism, conflict theory, symbolicinteractionism, exchange theory, and evolutionary theory.5.Explain how each theory can be applied in people’s personal and professional lives.Key Terms and DefinitionsLaw of human progressComte’s notion that society has gone through three stages: the theological, the metaphysical, and thescientificSocial staticsComte’s term for the stable structure of a societySocial dynamicsComte’s term for social processes and forms of changeSocial conflictA view of Karl Marx that social conflict—class struggle due to economic inequality—is at the core ofsociety and is the key source of social changeEconomic determinismThe idea that economic factors are responsible for most social change and for the nature of socialconditions, activities, and institutionsBourgeoisieThe class of people who own the means of productionProletariatThe group in capitalist societies that does not own the means of production and has only labor to sellClass-consciousnessAwareness among members of a society that the society is stratifiedSocial facts
Chapter 2: The Development of SociologyReliable and valid pieces of information about societyCollective conscienceA collective psyche that results from the blending of many individual mentalities but exists above anyone individualEgoistic suicideSuicide that results from lack of social integration into meaningful groups, leaving the individual with asense of being isolatedAltruistic suicideSuicide that results from being overly integrated into groups and the group meaning taking on moreimportance than the individualAnomic suicideSuicide that results from sudden changes in society or in one’s life, leading to a disruption in thepatterns that guide one’s lifeFatalistic suicideSuicide that results from oppressive social conditions that lead one to a fatal sense of hopelessnessVerstehenUnderstanding human action by examining the subjective meanings that people attach to their ownbehavior and the behavior of othersChicago SchoolAn approach developed by Cooley, Mead, Thomas, and others in the 1920s that emphasized theimportance of social interactions in the development of human thought and actionMiddle-range theoryA set of propositions designed to link abstract theory with empirical testingTheoryA scientific explanation, grounded in evidence, for a particular process or phenomenonStructural functionalismThe theory that societies contain certain interdependent structures, each of which performs certainfunctions for the maintenance of societySocial systemA set of interrelated social structures and the expectations that accompany them

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