DK1212_C003

DK1212_C003 - Part II Imaging Systems as Data Sources This...

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Part II Imaging Systems as Data Sources This part of the book provides the necessary link between the image data generation and the world of image reconstruction, processing, and analysis. In the following chapters, we shall comment on dif- ferent medical imaging modalities, to the extent that is needed to understand the imaging properties of the individual modalities and their requirements with respect to processing of measured data. No attempt will be made to go deeper into the physical background of the individual modalities, nor shall we describe the technical con- struction of the respective imaging systems. The purpose is solely to explain those features of each modality that determine its imag- ing properties and limitations, and to comment on intrinsic signal and image data processing, as well as on typical parameters of the provided image data. This should lead the reader to an understand- ing of the reasons behind the application of this or another data processing approach in the frame of every modality. Nevertheless, because identical or similar data processing approaches are used for different modalities, the chapters concerning the imaging sys- tems will mostly only refer to chapters of Part III when mentioning external image processing methods.
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The medical imaging systems can be classified into the follow- ing main categories according to imaging medium or basic imaging principle: X-ray projection radiography, including digital mammog- raphy and digital subtractive angiography (DSA) X-ray computed tomography (CT) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tomography Nuclear imaging (planar gamma-imaging, SPECT, PET) Ultrasonic imaging in two and three dimensions (ultra- sonography (USG), three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US)), including color flow imaging (CFI) Infrared (IR) and optical imaging Electron microscopy (transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) Electrical impedance tomography (IT) Other modalities appear occasionally, namely in research. We shall deal with each of the groups individually in a separate chapter, where specific relevant references are cited. Other sources used but not cited are [5], [13], [18], [22], [28], [35], [40], [41], [45], [47], [48], [50]–[57], and [59]. It should be understood that the mentioned modalities are not used exclusively in medicine; many of them find applications in other areas too — in technology and industry (material engineering, micro- and nanotechnology, nonde- structive testing), as well as in research and science, such as in biology, ecology, archaeology, etc.
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137 3 Planar X-Ray Imaging Planar x-ray imaging is considered the historically first medical imag- ing modality. Its principle, capable of providing directly the images without any reconstruction, is transparent; the digitization appeared in this field rather recently. Of numerous sources—also for more detailed study—let us mention [6], [7], [9], [10], [30], [36], [49].
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2008 for the course BME 513 taught by Professor Yen during the Fall '07 term at USC.

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DK1212_C003 - Part II Imaging Systems as Data Sources This...

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