CH15_substance_abuse

CH15_substance_abuse - CH15.1 & CH3.3 Substance Abuse...

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PSB2000-02 Spring 2008 Exam 4 Module 3.3: 3, 4, 6, 8 3. How does cocaine influence dopamine synapses? Cocaine interferes with the reuptake of released dopamine. 4. Why is methylphenidate generally less disruptive to behavior than cocaine is despite the drugs’ similar mechanisms? The effects of a methylphenidate pill develop and decline in the brain much more slowly than do those of cocaine. 6. How does nicotine influence dopamine synapses? Nicotine excites acetylcholine receptors on neurons that release dopamine and thereby increases dopamine release. 8. What are the effects of cannabinoids on neurons? Cannabinoids released by the postsynaptic neuron attach to receptors on presynaptic neurons, where they inhibit further release of glutamate as well as GABA. Module 15.1: 1, 3 1. What do drug use, sex, gambling, and video-game playing have in common? They increase the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. 3. When addiction develops, how does the nucleus accumbens change its response to the addictive activity and to other reinforcements? The nucleus accumbens becomes selectively sensitized, increasing its response to the addictive activity and decreasing its response to other reinforcing activities. 1. What is tolerance? Sensitization? (regarding the effects of drugs) Tolerance : a decrease in drug effect with repeated administration Sensitization (=reverse tolerance): an increase in drug effect with repeated administration 2. What may be involved in the neuroadaptations of the brain as a result of drug addiction? Addictive drugs can produce persistent neuroadaptations (changes) in brain regions involved in the process of reward. It is thought that these adaptations may render these regions hypersensitive (“sensitized”). Perhaps these long lasting changes leave addicts susceptible to relapse even long after the discontinuation of drug use. Page 1 of 5
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This note was uploaded on 04/23/2008 for the course PSYCH PSB2000 taught by Professor Grausam during the Spring '08 term at FSU.

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CH15_substance_abuse - CH15.1 & CH3.3 Substance Abuse...

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