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CH13_Exam_Learning_and_Memory

CH13_Exam_Learning_and_Memory - CH13 Biology of Learning...

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CH13 Biology of Learning and Memory PSB2000-02 Spring 2008 Quiz 5 & Exam 4 Study Guide for CH13 Biology of Learning and Memory (Questions marked with an asterisk (*) are important for the quiz. All questions are important for the exam.) Stop & Check Module 13.1: 4, 5 4. What is the difference between anterograde and retrograde amnesia? Retrograde amnesia is forgetting events before brain damage; anterograde amnesia is failing to store memories of events after brain damage. 5. Which types of memory are least impaired in H. M.? H. M. is least impaired on short-term memory, procedural memory, implicit memory, and memory of events that occurred more than 1-3 years before his surgery. Study Guide Questions 1. What is an engram? Describe the experiments Lashley conducted on rats in attempt to find the engram in the brain. Karl Lashley Engrams: physical representations (memory trace) of what had been learned Believed that a knife cut should abolish the newly learned response 2. What 2 principles did Lashley propose based on his search for the engram? Two key principles: i. Equipotentiality – all parts of the cortex contribute equally to complex functioning behaviors (e.g. learning); one part can substitute for another part ii. Mass action – the cortex works as a whole, not as solitary isolated units; performance improves when more of the cortex is involved 3. What 2 assumptions did Lashley make, which later investigators rejected? Learning and memory do not depend on connections across the cortex Also: learning did not depend on a single area of the cortex Maze learning is a complex task—requires multiple areas 2 unnecessary assumptions: The engram is only in the cortex. All memories are physiologically the same. 4. *Describe the differences between long-term and short-term memory. Short-term memory – memory of events that have just occurred (up to 20 seconds) limited capacity remember a phone number (7 digits) fades quickly without rehearsal retrieval of lost STM does not benefit from the presence of a cue Page 1 of 8
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CH13 Biology of Learning and Memory Long-term memory – memory of events from previous times (20–60 sec to a lifetime) vast capacity try to remember a phone number 5 minutes later; LTM persists can be stimulated with a cue/hint 5. *What is working memory? Give a couple of examples. Some memories do not qualify as distinctly short-term or long-term i. Where you parked the car this morning. ii. What you had for dinner last night. iii. Too long ago to be STM, but you didn’t rehearse it, and it will fade over hours, days, or weeks. Working Memory Not just a station on the way to LTM Temporary storage of information while actively attending to it or working on Three major components of working memory include: Phonological loop – Stores auditory input Visuospatial sketchpad – Stores visual input Central Executive – Directs attention and determines which items to store ***More about Working Memory*** The delayed response task
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