CH13_Learning and Memory-1

CH13_Learning and Memory-1 - PSB2000-02 Spring 2008 Quiz 5...

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PSB2000-02 Spring 2008 Study Guide for CH13 Biology of Learning and Memory (Questions marked with an asterisk (*) are important for the quiz. All questions are important for the exam.) Module 13.1: 4, 5 1. What is an engram? Describe the experiments Lashley conducted on rats in attempt to find the engram in the brain. Engram- the physical representation of what has been learned. Lashley trained rats on mazes and brightness discrimination tasks then made cuts in the cerebral cortex to determine if there were any differences. 2. What 2 principles did Lashley propose based on his search for the engram? Equipotentiality- all parts of the cortex contribute equally to complex activities such as learning, any part can substitute for another. Mass action- the cortex works as a whole and the more cortex, the better. 3. What 2 assumptions did Lashley make, which later investigators rejected? (a) the cerebral cortex is the best and only place to search for an engram, (b) all kinds of memory are physiologically the same. 4. *Describe the differences between long-term and short-term memory. Short-Term memory: memory of what has just occurred (up to 20 seconds). Long-term memory: memory of events from previous times. (20-60 seconds to a lifetime). STM has limited capacity, LTM has vast capacity. STM fades quickly without rehearsal, LTM persists. LTM can be stimulated by a cue or hint, lost STM does not benefit from a cue. 5. *What is working memory? Give a couple of examples. Temporary storage of information while attending to it or working on it. i.e. Where you parked your car, what you ate for dinner last night. 6. What are the 3 major components of working memory? 1) phonological loop- stores auditory information including words, 2) visuospatial sketchpad- stores visual information, 3) central executive- directs attention to one stimulus or another and determines what items will be stored in working memory. 7. *What is the delayed response task? Which brain area is especially important for performance on this task? Delayed response task – responds to a stimulus that you heard or saw a short while earlier. Increased activity in the prefrontal cortex leads to storage of memory. 8.
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CH13_Learning and Memory-1 - PSB2000-02 Spring 2008 Quiz 5...

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