CH14_Cognitive Functions-1

CH14_Cognitive Functions-1 - PSB2000-02 Spring 2008 Quiz 5...

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PSB2000-02 Spring 2008 Study Guide for CH14: Cognitive Functions (Questions marked with an asterisk (*) are important for the quiz. All questions are important for the exam.) Stop & Check Module 14.1: 4, 5, 6, 7*, 8 Module 14.2: 2*, 3, 4*, 6, 7*, 9* Module 14.3: 5* 1. *What are the main connections between the hemispheres? Each hemisphere controls the contralateral side of the body. 2. *What is lateralization? The division of labor between the two hemispheres. 3. *Which hemisphere is more specialized for language? What percentage of left- and right-handers have this hemisphere as language-dominant? Left side is specialized for language, 95% of right-handers. 4. To which hemisphere(s) does the right visual field project? To which hemisphere(s) does the right half of both retinas project? (Answer these questions replacing “right” with “left”.) Right visual field to left hemisphere. The right half of both retinas connects to the right hemisphere. 5. What is epilepsy? What are some causes of epilepsy? What are several ways it can be treated? Epilepsy- condition characterized by repeated episodes of excessive neural activity, mostly due to decreased release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Can result from a mutation in a gene controlling the GABA receptor, trauma or infection in the brain, brain tumors, or exposure to toxic substances. Antiepileptic drugs block sodium flow across the membrane or enhance the effects of GABA. Cutting the corpus callosum causes seizures to affect only half the body and become less frequent. 6. Why is the corpus callosum sometimes severed in cases of severe epilepsy? What are the effects of such an operation on overall intelligence, motivation, and motor coordination? If epileptic activity can’t bounce back and forth between the hemispheres a seizure may not develop at all. Intellect and motivation are maintained. Motor activity such as walking and tying shoes is fine however unfamiliar tasks such as threading a needle or hitting a golf ball become difficult. 7. *What have we learned from split-brain humans concerning specialization of the 2 hemispheres? Which tasks are best accomplished by the left hemisphere? Split- brain people maintain normal intellect and motivation but tend to use hands independently in a way others cannot. Left side is best for language 8. *Which functions are performed best by the right hemisphere? Damage to the right hemisphere leads to what difficulties? Right hemisphere is better at
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CH14_Cognitive Functions-1 - PSB2000-02 Spring 2008 Quiz 5...

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