00068466

00068466 - I00 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS FERROELECTRICS AND FREQUENCY CONTROL VOL 38 NO 2 MARCH 1991 High-speed Ultrasound Volumetric

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I00 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS, FERROELECTRICS, AND FREQUENCY CONTROL, VOL. 38, NO. 2, MARCH 1991 High-speed Ultrasound Volumetric Imaging System- Part I: Transducer Design and Beam Steering Stephen W. Smith, Henry G. Pavy, Jr., and Olaf T. von Ramm Abstract-Transducer design and phased-array beam steering are de- veloped for a volumetric ultrasound scanner that enables the 3-D vi- sualization of dynamic structures in real time. The geometric princi- ples of phased-array beam steering in azimuth and elevation are de- rived for a 2-D array transducer. Several two-dimensional (2-D) array designs are analyzed for resolution and main lobe-side lohe ratio by simulation using 2-D fast Fourier transform methods. Fabrication techniques are described for 2-D array transducer. Experimental mea- surements of pulse-echo point spread responses for 2-D arrays agree with the simulations. Measurements of pulse-echo sensitivity, band- width and crosstalk are included. I. INTRODUCTION LTRASOUND cross-sectional imaging has become a val- U uable diagnostic tool in virtually every medical specialty. In addition, the cross-sectional image format of ultrasound B-scans originated by Wild and Reid [l] in 1952, has been adopted for computed tomography and magnetic resonance im- aging. Nevertheless, for many who design medical ultrasound imaging systems, the ultimate goal is to obtain images that closely resemble the idealized pictures of medical school anat- omy texts. An on-line, real time three-dimensional (3-D) image that is analogous to that of the human eye and which can be manipulated to obtain any desired view or cross-section remains the ideal for medical imaging. There has been significant previous work in 3-D ultrasound imaging. In 1953, Howry et al. [2] and in 1967, Brown [3] described pulse-echo 3-D ultrasound scanners, but these were too slow for practical clinical use. In 1966, Thurstone [4] de- scribed 3-D ultrasound holography for biomedical applications. In 1972, a high speed water path, mechanically scanned ultra- sound camera that operated primarily in the transmission mode was developed by Green [5]. Another approach to 3-D ultrasound has been to synthesize a 3-D ultrasound image using off-line reconstructions of serial cross-sectional clinical scans via photographic techniques 161, [7] or, more recently, using sophisticated computer reconstruc- tions. The significant developments in 3-D computer recon- structions for cardiac applications have been described in an extensive review by McCann et al. [SI. Recently, off-line 3-D reconstructions have also been extended to obstetric [9] and ophthalmic applications [ 101. Manuscript received April 4, 1990; revised August 6, 1990; accepted August 7, 1990. This work was supported in part by HHS grant #37586 and in part by NSFiERC #CDR-8622201. S.
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2008 for the course BME 536 taught by Professor Shung during the Fall '07 term at USC.

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00068466 - I00 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS FERROELECTRICS AND FREQUENCY CONTROL VOL 38 NO 2 MARCH 1991 High-speed Ultrasound Volumetric

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