Psychology Midterm Notes
Chapter 1: Introduction to Prejudice and Discrimination
Smith and Zarate suggest that male gender, White racial identity, nondisabled status,
heterosexual orientation, and young age are the expected attributes in Western cultures.
Thus, the word “person” immediately brings to mind a White, heterosexual, able-bodied,
youthful male. A person can be outside the
cultural default values
in one or more ways.
directed toward people based on their group membership
evaluations of social group members are more strongly related to how a person treats those
group members than are the beliefs, or stereotypes he or she holds about them.
Attitudes are evaluations
(good-bad, approve-disapprove) that are based on affect, cognition, and
Attitudes towards social groups can be based on:
or feelings toward members of a group
or beliefs about the characteristics of members of a group
or overt actions that treat individuals differently depending on
their group membership
represents the affective or
reaction to social groups,
manifestation or prejudice, and
Negative Stereotype: Members of Group X are lazy, unreliable, and careless, which may lead to
Prejudice Attidtude: I don’t like Group X which may lead to
Discrimination: I prefer to exclude them from the neighbourhood, avoid hiring them, etc.
Stereotypes may lead to prejudice, and that prejudice may lead to discrimination.
Stereotype: is a set of beliefs or expectations that we have about people solely based on their
stereotypes represent the cognitive component of prejudice
one’s idiosyncratic (personal) beliefs about a social group that have
developed over time through experience with individual group members
culturally shared beliefs about the traits that are characteristic to a given
cultural stereotypes are especially malicious, because they are socially shared and deeply
embedded within the cultural fabric
Stereotypes have an enormous impact on our perceptions of others, our memory for their
behaviour, and ultimately, our judgments about their behaviour.