Midterm (Oct. 5) Notes

Midterm (Oct. 5) Notes - Psychology Midterm Notes Chapter...

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Psychology Midterm Notes Chapter 1: Introduction to Prejudice and Discrimination - Smith and Zarate suggest that male gender, White racial identity, nondisabled status, heterosexual orientation, and young age are the expected attributes in Western cultures. Thus, the word “person” immediately brings to mind a White, heterosexual, able-bodied, youthful male. A person can be outside the cultural default values in one or more ways. (pg. 3) Prejudice: an attitude directed toward people based on their group membership evaluations of social group members are more strongly related to how a person treats those group members than are the beliefs, or stereotypes he or she holds about them. Attitudes are evaluations (good-bad, approve-disapprove) that are based on affect, cognition, and behaviour. Attitudes towards social groups can be based on: 1. Affective information or feelings toward members of a group 2. Cognitive Information or beliefs about the characteristics of members of a group 3. Behavioural Tendencies or overt actions that treat individuals differently depending on their group membership Whereas prejudice represents the affective or emotional reaction to social groups, stereotypes are the cognitive manifestation or prejudice, and discrimination is the behavioural manifestation of prejudice. Example: Negative Stereotype: Members of Group X are lazy, unreliable, and careless, which may lead to Prejudice Attidtude: I don’t like Group X which may lead to Discrimination: I prefer to exclude them from the neighbourhood, avoid hiring them, etc. Stereotypes may lead to prejudice, and that prejudice may lead to discrimination. Stereotype: is a set of beliefs or expectations that we have about people solely based on their group membership. stereotypes represent the cognitive component of prejudice Individual Stereotypes: one’s idiosyncratic (personal) beliefs about a social group that have developed over time through experience with individual group members Cultural Stereotypes: culturally shared beliefs about the traits that are characteristic to a given group cultural stereotypes are especially malicious, because they are socially shared and deeply embedded within the cultural fabric Stereotypes have an enormous impact on our perceptions of others, our memory for their behaviour, and ultimately, our judgments about their behaviour.
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once a stereotype is activated, we have a tendency to notice and remember information that is consistent with our stereotypes and ignore information that is not. Descriptive stereotypes: provide information about the alleged behaviour, preferences, and competencies of group members. Prescriptive stereotypes: suggests hour people ought to behave, how certain groups should think and feel. Stereotypes (whether positive or negative) deny people their individuality and constrain
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This note was uploaded on 04/23/2008 for the course PSYCH 112 taught by Professor Cummins during the Winter '08 term at UWO.

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Midterm (Oct. 5) Notes - Psychology Midterm Notes Chapter...

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