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Midterm (Nov. 9) Notes

Midterm (Nov. 9) Notes - Chapter 4 Cognitive Components of...

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Chapter 4 Cognitive Components of Prejudice: Stereotyping and Categorization - Cognition is what and who we are Stereotypes are generalizations about a group of people, and inevitably there are individual group members who do not fit the stereotypes of their group. - Consequently, the use of stereotypes may lead us to ignore individual differences among group members Stereotypes exaggerate group differences - therefore people believe they are more similar to others in their ingroup and very different from members of an outgroup, making harmonious intergroup relations very difficult It is the widespread acceptance of a particular stereotypic belief (i.e. one group is dumber than the other) that causes more problems, than if one person holds that stereotype TV has a lot of stereotypes i.e. South Park uses humour to break stereotypes and norms (i.e. Timmy, the stereotypical disabled child and Token, the token black kid) - humour is a double-edged sword o brings information in an way and acknowledges it o breaks down barriers o people use humour to hide the fact that they are prejudice (i.e. cruel, race jokes and then claiming it is humour) Ex. Will and Grace, these gay characters need t be seen as humorous to be on TV? Stereotypes: Function Individual - Cognitive Function - Ego-defense function - Social function Stereotype Function: Individual Cognitive Function: stereotypes allow the individual to simplify and reduce complex information to a manageable size. - Information (stereotype is the information you have) o Memory o Social engagement o Economy o Categorization Applying these schemas, tells us how we should behave and how others should as well. 1
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Ego-Defensive Function: Stereotyping others helps us feel better about ourselves - related to self-esteem - human extenuate the positive in everything they do, therefore view others negatively, explains negative stereotypes Fein & Spencer, 1997 expt 2 - found that when a person is given negative feedback, they were more likely to stereotype a gay target with the stereotypical characteristics (i.e. more sensitive, feminine, etc.) - subjects whose self-esteem was threatened by negative feedback were also less inclined to like the gay target than subjects who were not given negative feedback. Social Function: stereotyping by helping us to fit in and identify with our own group - to obtain social acceptance we “market” ourselves and others as having characteristics and traits that our group members have - shared stereotypes among group members may foster loyalty to the group and help to demonstrate in-group identification. - Stereotyping and openly derogating out-group members serves the important social function of gaining acceptance of in-group members o (i.e. pledges of a sorority or fraternity filling out a questionnaire and implying that other frats/sororities are bad, only if their answers are shared with their group members) Stereotypes: Function Group - Groups-justification function
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Midterm (Nov. 9) Notes - Chapter 4 Cognitive Components of...

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