Phylogeny bolker - Phylogenetics: How do we put together...

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1 Phylogenetics: How do we put together information from a collection of extant species (tree “leaves”) to make inferences about their evolutionary relationships, and about their ancestors? Should we avoid lumping convergently evolved taxa (e.g., hedgehogs and echidnas)? How? Phenetics • Classic approach (Linnaeus) • Group species based upon phenotypic similarity •U s e all traits Phylogenetics • New (Hennig, 1966) • Based on patterns of ancestry (species are groups based on most recent ancestry) • uses only shared, derived characters (i.e., derived homologues ) • aims to reveal actual evolutionary history (the “real” tree)
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2 SARS phylogenies ? ht p:/ evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/news/060101_batsars homology vs. analogy homology : a character shared between two or more species that was present in their common ancestor analogy : a shared character not present in the common ancestor (i.e., the character evolved twice, independently): convergent evolution Beetle Butterfly Horse “the real tree” (scenario 1)
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3 Beetle Butterfly Horse Phenetics Phylogenetics Beetle Butterfly Horse Phenetics vs. phylogenetics: scenario 1, agree Lizard Bird Dragonfly “the real tree” (scenario 2) Phenetics vs. phylogenetics (2): scenario 2, disagree Lizard Bird Dragonfly Phenetics Lizard Bird Dragonfly Phylogenetics
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Phylogeny bolker - Phylogenetics: How do we put together...

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