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Evoldis bolker - Evolution and disease outline How can we...

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1 Evolution and disease: outline How can we use evolutionary ideas to understand disease, and vice versa ? Drift and tradeoffs in genetic diseases Host-parasite coevolution: racing the Red Queen Parasite strategies and the evolution of virulence Genetic diseases the simplest diseases to understand are single- factor , mutations that knock out critical genes in a metabolic pathway ex: Tay-Sachs, cystic fibrosis, sickle-cell anemia often lethal, or clearly detrimental to fitness; what maintains these mutations in the population against obvious selective forces?? null model : mutation-selection balance • drift tradeoffs (pleiotropy) gene-by-environment (GxE) interactions Mutation-selection balance perhaps new mutations are occurring as fast as they can be eliminated by selection: mutation- selection balance we can calculate expected frequencies based on mutation rate m and selection coefficient s dominant allele, frequency = m/s recessive allele, frequency = sqrt( m/s ) (> m/s ) rates for genetic diseases are (mostly) too high for mutation-selection balances: we reject the null hypothesis …
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