FINAL EXAM REVIEW - 1) Discuss fully the origins of WWI and...

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1) Discuss fully the origins of WWI and explain why many historians cite ultrnationalism as its underlying cause On June 28 , 1914 , Archduke Franz Ferdinand , the heir to the Austrian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo by Gabriel Princip of Young Bosnia , a group whose aims included the unification of the South Slavs and independence from Austria (see also: Black Hand ). The assassination set into motion a series of fast-moving events that escalated into a full-scale war. However, the reasons behind the conflict are multiple and complex. Historians and political scientists have grappled with this question for nearly a century without reaching a consensus. The Verdict at Versailles The "official" explanation lies in Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles , often referred to as the "War Guilt" Clause. The argument was that Austria, backed by Berlin, attacked Serbia on July 29 and Germany invaded Belgium on August 3 . Thus, Germany and Austria-Hungary were interpreted to be the initial aggressors, and therefore, seen as responsible for the outbreak of war. While the Weimar government accepted the Clause, it had done so under complicated circumstances including continued economic blockade and the threat of renewed hostilities. Consequently, Germany was punished for its alleged responsibility, creating an atmosphere in the country that helped the Nazi Party rise to power. Since 1960, the theory that Germany was primarily responsible for the war has been promoted by academics such as Fritz Fischer , Imanuel Geiss , Hans-Ulrich Wehler , Wolfgang Mommsen and V.R. Berghahn . Fischer contended that Germany wanted to control most of Europe or, at the very least, unite it economically through the country. However, as he points out, diplomatic efforts to do so often centered around Anglo-
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FINAL EXAM REVIEW - 1) Discuss fully the origins of WWI and...

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