Chapter One Review - Chapter One Terms to Know 1....

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Chapter One Terms to Know 1. Psychology- The scientific study of behavior and the mind 2. Basic Research- Reflects the quest for knowledge purely for its own sake 3. Applied Research- Designed to solve specific practical problems 4. Mind-Body dualism- The belief that mind is a spiritual entity not subject to  physical laws that govern the body 5. Monism- Holds that mind and body are one and that mind is not a separate  spiritual entity 6. British empiricism- Held that all ideas and knowledge are gained empirically that  is through the senses 7. Cognitive psychology- Studies mental processes 8. Evolutionary psychology- Emphasizes the adaptiveness of behavior 9. Structuralism- The analysis of the mind in terms of its basic elements 10.Functionalism- Held that psychology should study the functions of consciousness  rather than its structure 11.Psychodynamic perspective- Searches for the causes of behavior within the  inner workings of our personality emphasizing the role of unconscious processes 12.Phobias- Intense unrealistic fears 13.Free- Association- A technique uses by psychologists in which they ask the  patient to express any thoughts that came to their mind 14.Psychoanalysis- The analysis of internal and primarily unconscious psychological  forces
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15.Tabula rasa- meaning that at birth the mind is a “blank tablet” upon which  experiences are written 16.Behaviorism- A school of thought that emphasizes environmental control of  behavior through learning 17.Cognitive Behaviorism- Which proposes that learning experiences and the  environment influence our expectations and other thoughts, and in turn our  thoughts influence how we behave 18.Humanistic perspective- Emphasized free will, personal growth, and attempt to  find meaning in one’s existence 19.Self-Actualization- The reaching of one’s individual potential 20.Positive psychology movement- Emphasizes the study of human strengths,  fulfillment, and optimal living 21.Cognitive neuroscience- Which uses sophisticated electrical recording and brain- imaging techniques to examine brain activity while people engage in cognitive  tasks 22.Social constructivism- Maintains that what we consider reality is largely our own  mental creation 23.Sociocultural perspective- Examines how the social environment and cultural  learning influence our behavior, thoughts, and feelings 24.Culture- Refers to the enduring values, beliefs, behaviors, and traditions that are  shared by a large group of people and passed from one generation to the next 25.Socialization- Is the process by which culture is transmitted to new members and  internalized by them 26.Cultural psychology- Explores how culture is transmitted to its members and 
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This note was uploaded on 04/23/2008 for the course PSY 315 taught by Professor Johndavis during the Winter '07 term at Michigan State University.

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Chapter One Review - Chapter One Terms to Know 1....

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