Lecture_Four_Notes.docx - Lecture Four Notes- Resistance...

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Lecture Four Notes- Resistance and Collaboration in Occupied France.The Fall of FranceOn May 10th, 1940, the Germans carried out a swift decisive military victory over France, theNetherlands, and Belgium by using ‘lightning war’blitzkrieg.Within three weeks, France fell. French Prime Minister Paul Reynaud resigned and decoratedWorld War One French war hero, Marshall Philippe Pétain took over. On June 18th Frenchofficer named Charles de Gaulle gave a historical speech called the appeal of 18 June on theBBC in London. This speech urged Frenchmen and women not to give up the fight. “Whateverhappening, the flame of the French resistance must not be extinguished and will not beextinguished.” This speech is widely credited as the birth of the French resistance movement.In one of history's many great ironies, Pètain signed an Armistice with Nazi Germany inCompiegne on June 22nd, 1940, the very spot where the November 11th, 1918, Armistice wassigned. This dissolved the third Republic and marked the beginning of Vichy, France.Vichy FranceFrom June 1940 to November 1942, France was divided into two zones:-A German-occupied zone in the northwestern region of France (zone occupée), which theGerman military administration controlled in France under Commander Otto von Stülpnagel.-An unoccupied zone (zone libre) in the southern region of France comma controlled by Pètainand was headquartered in the town of Vichy. The Vichy government also controlled FrenchAlgeria and kept control of the French colonies.This structure remained in place until the allied landings in North Africa called operation torch.which happened in November 1942. In response, Hitler ordered case Anton, the invasion ofCorsica and southern France, by German and Italian soldiers. From mid-October until liberationin August 1944, Germany occupied all of France.The Dark YearsVichy government was an authoritarian (dictatorship, dismissing parliament)collaborationistregime that curbed the freedoms and liberties of Frenchmen and women living under its controlperiod Petain introduced the national revolution that sought to radically redesign every aspect ofFrench society. Principles instilled by the French Revolution (Liberty, Equality, Fraternity) of1789 were replaced by Vichy's conservative slogan (Work, Country, Family).We went against every principle introduced by the French Revolution. It was a militaristic as wellas an antisemitic, anti-modern, anti-democratic, authoritarian dictatorship that promotedtraditional values suggesting high birth rates, the Catholic Church, and agriculture.For many, the German occupation of France is known as the dark years. But for many, theFrench people refused to acknowledge their role in collaborating both passively and activelywith the Nazis.

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