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Study Guide 1 - Study Guide Exam 1 Pharmacology(PHA 321...

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Study Guide – Exam 1 Pharmacology (PHA 321) Exam 1 covers the material from chapters 1, 3-16. The chapters that are emphasized the most on exam 1 are chapters 3, 4, 5, 13, 14, 15, and 16 so pay particular attention to those chapters. Be able to define the following terms: 1. Drug: any chemical that can affect living processes, chemical substance that is taken deliberately in order to obtain some desirable effect. 2. Pharmacology: The study of drugs and their interactions with living systems, The study of how drugs work and the effects they produce. 3. Clinical pharmacology: The study of drugs in humans 4. Therapeutics: The use of drugs to diagnose, prevent, or treat disease or to prevent pregnancy, the medical use of drugs. 5. Pharmacokinetics: What the body does to the drug: the study of drug movement through the body 6. Pharmacodynamics: What the drug does to the body; the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs and the molecular mechanisms by which those effects are produced. 7. Absorption: movement of the drug from the site of administration into the blood. 8. Distribution: drug movement from the blood to the interstitial space of tissues and from there into cells. 9. Metabolism: Enzymatically medicated alteration of drug structure, primarily is metabolizes in liver. 10. Excretion: The movement of drugs and their metabolites out of the body, usually through the kidneys. Can come from body excretions 11. Receptor: Special “chemicals” in the body that most drugs interact with to produce effects. Any functional macromolecule in a cell to which a drug binds to produce its effects. 12. Affinity: strength of attraction between a drug and its receptor 13. Intrinsic activity: ability of drug to activate the receptor following binding. Affinity and Intrinsic Activity are independent properties.
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14. Agonist: molecules that activate receptors. Mimic action of endogenous regulatory molecules; have affinity and high intrinsic activity. 15. Antagonist: Block actions of endogenous regulatory molecules 16. Partial agonist: Mimic action like agonists but with reduced intensity. 17. Therapeutic index: a measure of drug safety, a large therapeutic index drug has a high margin of safety (big dose range between the effective dose and toxic dose), a small or narrow therapeutic index drug is not as safe and therefore is not as easy to use because there is not much room between the effective dose and toxic dose. 18. Drug interaction: drug-drug interactions—can occur anytime two or more drugs are taken—Consequence: increased therapeutic or adverse effects, reduction of effects: inhibited drug effects either beneficial or detrimental, creation of a unique response. Drug-Food Interaction—Impact of food on drug absorption, impact of food on drug metabolism, impact of food on drug toxicity, impact of food on drug action, timing of drug administration with respect to meals. Drug Herbal interaction—becoming very important as many patients are taking herbals and not necessarily tell their health care providers 19. Side effect:
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