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Psych_Review_Sheet_3_BL - Psychology Exam Review III...

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Psychology Exam Review III 1 LEARNING Learning vs. Maturation -Learning – a relatively permanent change in behavior, knowledge, capability, or attitude that is acquired through experience and cannot be attributed to illness, injury, or maturation. -Maturation – Changes that occur according to one’s genetically determined biological timetable of development. Classical Conditioning -a type of learning through which an organism learns to associate one stimulus with another. Unconditioned Response (UR) -A response that is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior learning. Unconditioned Stimulus (US) -A stimulus that elicits a specific unconditioned response without prior learning. Conditioned Stimulus (CS) -A neutral stimulus that, after repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus, becomes associated with it and elicits a conditioned response. Conditioned Response (CR) -The learned response that comes to be elicited by a conditioned stimulus as a result of its repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus. Extinction -In classical conditioning, the weakening and eventual disappearance of the conditioned response as a result of repeated presentation of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus. Spontaneous recovery -The reappearance of an extinguished response (in a weaker form) when an organism is exposed to the original conditioned stimulus following a rest period. Generalization -In classical conditioning, the tendency to make a conditioned response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus. Discrimination -The learned ability to distinguish between similar stimuli so that the conditioned response occurs only to the original conditioned stimulus but not to similar stimuli. Taste Aversion Learning -The intense dislike and/or avoidance of a particular food that has been associated with nausea or discomfort. -A group of cancer patients were given a novel-tasting maple-flavored ice cream before chemotherapy. The nausea caused by the treatment resulted in a taste aversion to the ice cream.
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Psychology Exam Review III 2 Ader’s work on classical conditioning and immunity John Watson emotional conditioning (Little Albert) -The subject of the study, known as Little Albert, was a healthy and emotionally stable 11-month-old-infant. When tested, he showed no fear except of the loud noise Watson made by striking a hammer against a steel bar near his head. -In the laboratory, Raynor presented Little Albert with a white rat. As Albert reached for the rat, Watson struck the steel bar with a hammer just behind Albert’s head. This procedure was repeated, and Albert “jumped violently, fell forward and began to whimper” A week later, Watson continued the experiment, pairing the rat with the loud noise five more times. Then, at the sight of the white rat alone, Albert began to cry.
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Psych_Review_Sheet_3_BL - Psychology Exam Review III...

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