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Study Guide for Midterm Exam History 1302

Study Guide for Midterm Exam History 1302 - Study Guide for...

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Study Guide for Midterm Exam History 1302 Terms to Know: a. Sharecropping - system of agriculture or agricultural production where a landowner allows a sharecropper to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land . Sharecropping by definition is the working of a piece of land by a tenant in exchange for a portion, usually half, of the crops or the revenue that they bring in for the landowner. In return for the work on the land, the landowners supply the tenants and their families with living accommodations, seeds and fertilizer, tools, and food that can be bought in a commissary, charging fairly high interest rates to the tenants. These rates create an environment of debt and poverty that the sharecroppers have trouble escaping from. b. Tenure of Office Act - passed over the veto of President Andrew Johnson on March 2, 1867, provided that all federal officials whose appointment required Senate confirmation could not be removed without the consent of the Senate. c. Radical Republicans - Some members of the Republican Party were not only in favor the abolition of slavery but believed that freed slaves should have complete equality with white citizens. After the 1860 elections the Radical Republicans became a powerful force in Congress. They tended to view the Civil War as a crusade against the institution of slavery and supported immediate emancipation. They advocated enlistment of black soldiers. They led the fight for ratification of the 13th Amendment . d. Liberal Republican Party- a political party formed in 1872 to oppose the reelection of President Ulysses S. Grant . thought that the Grant Administration, and the president personally, were fully corrupt. More important they thought that the goals of Reconstruction had been achieved. These goals were first the destruction of slavery and second the destruction of Confederate nationalism. With these goals achieved the tenets of republicanism demanded that federal military troops be removed from the South, where they were propping up corrupt Republican regimes. e. Carpetbaggers and Scalawags- Scalawags — a derogatory term (originally describing worthless livestock) applied to native white Southerners who supported the federal reconstruction plan and cooperated with the blacks in order to achieve their ends. Some of the scalawags were entirely above board, having opposed the Confederacy in earlier times and later wanted a new South to emerge from the rubble. Others cooperated with or served in the Republican governments in order to avail themselves of money-making opportunities. Carpetbaggers —also a term of derision, but applied to Northerners who went South during Reconstruction, motivated by either profit or idealism. The name referred to the cloth bags many of them used for transporting their possessions, but today is applied to any recently arrived opportunist. Despite the negative connotation of the name, many carpetbaggers were sincerely interested in aiding the freedom and education of the former slaves.
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