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AP Psychology - Chapter 8 - Chapter Eight | Section Four...

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Chapter Eight  | Section Four Adaptability  – perhaps nature’s most important gift to mankind; our capacity to learn  new behaviors that enable us to cope with changing circumstances Learning  – a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience What is learnable, we can potentially teach. What has been learned, we can potentially change by new learning Experience is crucial to learning Association  – Aristotle’s conclusion for learning Associative Learning  – learning that certain events occur together. The events  may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its  consequences (as in operant conditioning). Conditioning  is the process of learning associations. Behaviorism  – Watson’s idea that psychology should be an objective science  based on observable behavior. Classical Conditioning Classical  Conditioning  – “Pavlovian Conditioning;” a type of learning in which an  organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an  unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and  prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Pavlov’s Experiments Ivan Pavlov  – medical degree at 33; studied digestive system; won Nobel Prize in 1904. Incidental findings when working with salivary secretion in dogs Unconditioned Response (UCR)  – involuntary response Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)  – stimulus that naturally stimulates a response Conditioned Response (CR)  – involuntary response to the neutral stimulus Conditioned Stimulus (CS)  – previously Neutral Stimulus Five Major Conditioning Processes 1. Acquisition  – initial learning of the stimulus-response relationship 2. Extinction  – diminished responding that occurs when the CS no longer signals an  impending UCS; only weakens CS does not extinguish
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