AP Psychology - Chapter 12

AP Psychology - Chapter 12 - Chapter Twelve | Section Five...

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Chapter Twelve  | Section Five Motivation  – a need or desire that serves to energize behavior and to direct it toward a  goal A hypothetical concept Three main motives: 1. Hunger 2. Sex 3. Achievement Nature vs. Nurture  – physiological “push” and psychological “pulls” Motivational Concepts Motivation has been understood through three main theories: Instinct Theory In the beginning instinct theory was used to identify over 5759 human instincts Theory collapsed under its own weight, for theorists simply named. Instinct  – a complex behavior that must have a fixed pattern throughout a  species and be unlearned. Behavior is directed by physiological needs and psychological wants. Drives and Incentives Theory Replaced instinct theory. Drive-reduction Theory  – the idea that a physiological needs creates an  aroused psychological state that drives an organism to reduce the need.  Homeostasis  – the maintenance of a steady internal state; physiological aim of  drive-reduction. Pushed by  needs . Pulled by  incentives . Incentives  – positive or negative stimuli that lure or repel us; both external and  internal. Optimum Arousal Theory 
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Motivated behavior increases arousal. Those who enjoy high arousal are likely to enjoy intense music, novel foods, and  risky behaviors. A Hierarchy of Motives Some needs take priority over others. Hierarchy of needs  – Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with  physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then  psychological needs become active. Hunger Ancel Keys Experimented on men by only feeding them half of needed amount of food. Men began conserving energy and became obsessed with food. They talked food, dreamed food,  and googled over food. The Physiology of Hunger Hunger doesn’t solely depend on  stomach contractions , but also other factors. You can still be hungry even when full. Body Chemistry Changes in body chemistry affect hunger. When blood glucose level drops, hunger increases. Hormone Insulin  diminishes glucose, making hungry. Glucose  – the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the  major source of energy for body tissues. The Brain and Set Point Hunger controls are located within the  Hypothalmus Hypothalmus  – a small but complex neural traffic intersection buried  deep in the brain.
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Lateral Hypothalmus  – causes hunger Ventromedial Hypothalmus  – depresses hunger By messing with hypothalamus, we alter “weight thermostat” which 
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AP Psychology - Chapter 12 - Chapter Twelve | Section Five...

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