AP Psychology - Chapter 10

AP Psychology - Chapter 10 - Chapter Ten | Section Three...

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Chapter Ten | Section Three Thinking Irrational v. Rational Issues Cognition – the mental activity associated with processing, understanding, and communicating information. Rational or Irrational ways in which we create concepts, solve problems, and make decisions and form judgment. Concepts Rational Concepts – mental groupings of similar objects, events, and people; the simplifying of things. Animals are capable of concept formation by sorting things into: 1) Functional Concepts 2) Perceptual Concepts Humans organize concepts into “Hierarchies.” Living Things Plant and Animal Kingdom Water and Land or Vertebrate and Invertebrate Humans also form concepts by definition Prototypes – the best example of a particular category, in which the closer something matches, the more readily we recognize it as an example of the concept. If something fails to match our prototype, we have trouble classifying it. Solving Problems Rational Types of Problem Solving 1) Trial and Error testing a problem through guessing and checking 2) Algorithms step-by-step procedure that guarantees a solution 3) Heuristics simple rule-of-thumb strategies, faster than algorithms 4) Insight sudden flashes of inspiration Wolfgang Kohler discovered insight is also apparent among Chimpanzees. Humans gain satisfaction from Insight Obstacles to Problem Solving Confirmation Bias – eagerness to search for information that confirms our ideas Fixation – the inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective This remains an obstacle, but can also be helpful when solving the same problems. Mental Set – the tendency to repeat solutions that have worked in the past Functional Fixedness – the tendency to perceive the functions of objects as fixed and unchanging Ex . Refusing to use anything but a screw driver, when a dime could work. Rational thinking is more difficult in times of increased stress or strain.
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AP Psychology - Chapter 10 - Chapter Ten | Section Three...

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