Jan_26_______2009_lecture_on_Independence - lecture...

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Jan 26, 2009 lecture highlights In lecture on Friday, I outlined the impact of Enlightenment ideas and the wide-ranging reforms instituted by the Bourbon dynasty in both the colonies and Spain and Portugal in the Eighteenth century. The Bourbon Reforms were intended to increase Latin American colonies’ productivity and hence the revenues of the Iberian crowns, while simultaneously extracting greater taxes from the colonies, and instituting new bureaucratic systems of oversight, collection, and government and military control. Over the 300 plus years of Iberian rule, those born in the colonies even when they were of Spanish or Portuguese parentage (in the case of Brazil), had rarely been allowed to hold the highest offices: of the 170 viceroys who served in the colonies from the 16 th through the 19 th centuries/ 4=creoles and all of them were the sons of Spanish officials ; of the 602 Captains General/Governors/ and Presidents/ 14 were creoles of the 606 bishops and archbishops who served as the maximum religious authorities in the colonies/ 105 were creole Irony: the Bourbon Reforms succeeded only too well : Mining production, commerce and agriculture – especially for export – grew significantly as a result of increased capital investments , technological innovation born of Enlightenment Scientific policies, and in some cases, trade liberalization policies implemented by the Bourbons, making both the Crown and Elite Creoles richer by the late 18 th century. BUT this was accompanied for the colonists by a more onerous and Effective system of TAX COLLECTION that ensured that more Colonists paid taxes and more of them than ever before. Not only elites were affected by these tax laws and their more efficient collection, other sectors of society were too. Indigenous communities resented the REPARTO system that forced them to buy goods (whether they needed them or no) from creole and peninsular merchants . More than 60 revolts occurred throughout the colonies in response to this system in the 1770s . In addition, the creation of the new Viceroyalties of Nueva Granada (Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela and Panama) and La Plata (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and part of Bolivia) in the 1770s spurred a reorientation of trade and the flow of goods and services that benefited some, but also meant losses for others .
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Big Point : Why was this important? And what impact would it have not only in shaping the Movements for Independence, but the contours of life during the early Republics of
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Jan_26_______2009_lecture_on_Independence - lecture...

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