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Psych Final DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES: 1. Naturalistic Observation- Technique that records naturally occurring behavior as opposed to behavior produeced in the laboratory + Good way to collect realistic data - Reactivity 2. Case Study- Focusing on a single case in depth over a long period of time + Appropriate for unusual cases - External validity/ verification 3. Survey- Designed to gather limited amounts of information from many people EX. Questionnaires, interviews + good way to collect data efficiently - Accuracy - Random Sampling- Garunteeing that everyone in a population has an equal likelihood of being selected for the sample 4. Laboratory Observations/ tests- Measuring individual differences among people + Practical uses - Difficulties in test construction/ validation CORRELATIONAL STUDIES - A study that looks for a consistent relationship between two phenomena + Shows relationships between variables - Does not tell you about cause and effect - Correlation- statistic that indicates whether two variables vary together in a systematic way -1(opposite diretion), 0 (unrelated), +1 (same direction) - Independent Variable- manipulated variable in an experiment - Dependant Variable- behavior that is measured or observed in an experiment - Experimental Group- Subjects who change - Control Group- Subjects who don’t change - Random assignment- technique ensuring that each participant in an experiment has an equal chance of being assigned to any conditions in the experiment - Placebo- inactive or inert substance that resembles an experimental substance - Single blind study- Experimental participants do not know to which condition they have been assigned - Double blind study- neither participants nor research observers are aware of who has been assigned to the experimental and control group
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- Rosenthal effect- Used double blind procedure to prevent experimental bias Reactivity- when behavior changes as a result of the observation process You can only tell cause and effect from experiment, not correlation - Confounding variable- uncontrolled variable that changes along with the independent variable CHAPTER 3 STRUCTURE - DENDRITES- fibers that extend outward to cell body from a neuron + receive information from other neurons - Cell body- (Soma) metabolic center containing genetic material - AXON- long tail-like part of a neuron that serves as a cell’s transmitter - MYELIN SHETH- insulating material that protects the axon + helps to speed up neurotransmitters ACTION POTENTIAL- all or none electrical signal that travels down a neuron’s axon NEUROTRANSMITTERS- chemical messengers that relay information from one neuron to the next - When action potential reaches the end of the axon, it triggers vesicles in terminal buttons to release neurotransmitters ALL OR NONE LAW- action potential will not begin until sufficient excitaroy input has been received SYNAPSE- small gap between the terminal buttons of a neuron and the dendrite or cell body of another neuron TYPES OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2009 for the course PSYCH 001 taught by Professor Hyland during the Spring '08 term at Lehigh University .

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