Most updated Psyc Study Guide

Most updated Psyc Study Guide - Review Session Chandler...

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Review Session: Chandler Ullman 248 @ 11:00 am Scientific Method Ch 2 Types of Descriptive Techniques 1) Naturalistic Observation a. A descriptive research technique that records naturally occurring behavior as opposed to behavior produced in the laboratory. b. Observe children playing at a day-care center c. Advantages i. Good way to collect normative data d. Disadvantages i. Must wait for the behavior to occur naturally ii. Problem of reactivity 1. just knowing your being observed can change behavior – example of hand washing in public bathrooms 2. Problem can sometimes be solved by using unobtrusive measures 2) Case Study a. observe one or a very few subjects in great depth usually over a long period of time i. Usually involves gathering a lot of information on background, behavior of that individual ii. A detailed description of a particular individual may be used to formulate broader research hypothesis iii. Advantages 1. The only method appropriate for very unusual cases iv. Disadvantages 1. External Validity: Is that one individual representative? 2. Verification: How do you know that one individual is being truthful? 3) Laboratory Observation a. Purpose is to observe people in a laboratory where extraneous variables can be controlled, specialized equipment can be used, and desire behaviors can be elicited. b. Examples i. Sleep studies ii. Studies of infant attachment c. Disadvantages i. Problem is that behavior may not be the same as in the real world 4) Surveys a. Questionnaires and interviews that ask people about experiences, attitudes, or opinions. Used to gather a limited amount of information from many people
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b. Advantage i. Good way to collect data efficiently that may lead to later experimentation c. Disadvantages i. Cant obtain in depth information ii. Must phrase questions and response options very carefully iii. Are respondents answers accurate iv. Obtaining a representative sample of participants 5) Tests a. Procedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, abilities and values b. Characteristics of a good test i. Standardization ii. Reliability iii. Validity Correlation Studies - A study that looks for a consistent relationship between two phenomena - Correlation Coefficient o The r statistic is used to summarize whether two measures vary together The range of r is from -1.0 to +1.0 + value means a positive correlation - value means a negative correlation R= 0 indicates no relationship between x and y o Disadvantages Correlation DOES NOT tell you anything about cause and effect Experimental Design - A controlled test of a hypothesis in which the researcher manipulates one variable to discover its effect on another. - Steps in an experiment o Start with a question o Decide how to define and measure your variables o Formulate a testable hypothesis - Independent Variable: Variable the experimenter manipulates o Example: Violent Show/ Non violent show - Dependent Variable: Variable that the experimenter predicts will be effected by
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