Psych Study Guide 3[1]

Psych Study Guide 3[1] - Psych Study Guide CHAPTER 12:...

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Psych Study Guide CHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY Personality : Set of psychological characteristics that differentiates us from others and leads us to act consistently across situations PSYCHOANALYTICAL APPROACHES : Freud `- Views personality as a “closed energy system” based on psychic energy called libido 3 Types of Mind 1. Conscious : Contains things that occupy current attention 2. Preconscious : Contains things that not currently in consciousness, but can be accessed. 3. Unconscious Personality Id - governed by inborn instinctual drives, particularly those related to sex and aggression Pleasure Principle - pursuit of pleasure through satisfaction of animalistic urges Ego - induces people to act with reason and deliberation, conform to the outside world Reality Principle - monitors the real world looking for appropriate outlets for the id’s needs Superego - motivates people to act in an ideal fashion, according to moral customs Idealistic Principle - always act in a proper and ideal fashion, perfection -Fixation: a person will continue to act in ways that are appropriate for a particular stage DEFENSE MECHANISMS Unconscious processes used by the ego to ward off the anxiety that comes from confrontation o All are unconscious, distort reality, are adaptive Denial - refusing to accept that the feeling is present or that the event occurred o EX: preschoolers will convince themselves they didn’t do something they wish they hadn’t done Projection - attributing one’s undesirable traits or actions to others o A failing student worrying about someone else not passing Reaction Formation - taking actions opposite to one’s feelings in order to deny the reality of the feelings
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o Having strong hatred towards someone, but acting really nice around them Sublimation - Redirecting anxiety- causing impulses into socially acceptable actions o Dealing with anxiety over a final by engaging in vigorous physical activity PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES Oral Stage (1 st Year) o Pleasure comes from sucking (putting things in mouth) o Infant learns to trust in others (for food) Fixation: overeating, smoking, nail biting Anal Stage (2 nd Year) o Pleasure comes from retaining or passing feces Fixation: excessive neatness or messiness Phallic Stage (3-5 years) o Pleasure comes from self stimulation of genitals o Oedipus complex o Identification of sex role o Castration anxiety + penis envy Fixation: Relationship or sexual problems Latency Period (6-Puberty) o Time of focus on achievement o Sexual feelings suppressed o Libido Genital Stage ( Puberty- Adulthood) o Mature sexual relationships with opposite sex o Mature personality, intimacy with others PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT Attempts to interpret symbolism in behavior to understand underlying unconscious motives Projective Techniques - ask people to interpret unstructured or ambiguous stimuli o Rorschach Inkblot Test
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2009 for the course PSYCH 001 taught by Professor Hyland during the Spring '08 term at Lehigh University .

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Psych Study Guide 3[1] - Psych Study Guide CHAPTER 12:...

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