Psych Study Guide 4[1]

Psych Study Guide 4[1] - Psych Study Guide 4 Chapter 16:...

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Psych Study Guide 4 Chapter 16: Stress and Coping Stress and Coping Stress - physical and psychological reactions to demanding situations Stressors - the demanding or threatening situations that produce stress General Adaptation Syndrome (Hans Selye) 1. Alarm - “Fight of Flight” response, body energized 2. Resistance - Body adjusts to cope with threat 3. Exhaustion - energy depleted, body “gives up” Issues Sequence Issues - is stress highest before, during, or after an event Measurement Issues - should we look at self-report, behavior or physiological responses Physical Consequences of Prolonged Stress Immune system lowered Can be measured by counting # of lymphocytes Affects likelihood of contracting cold/ flu viruses May affect cancer likelihood Cardiovascular system affected Increased blood Pressure Increased cholesterol levels in the blood Stress and Disease Type A Personality - determined to achieve, sense of time urgency, irritable, respond to threat or challenge very quickly, impatient with obstacles Type B Personality - calmer and less intense, much less stressful than type A Hostility - proneness to anger o Major risk factor for heart disease Psychological Consequences of Prolonged Stress Posttraumatic stress disorder - flashbacks, avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event + chronic arousal o Relatively rare Burnout - Physical, emotional + mental exhaustion created by long term involvement in an emotionally demanding situation o More common in people who approach stressful jobs with a strong sense of idealism
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Life Events Model of Coping and Stress Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS ) o Holmes and Rahe o Ranked the stressfulness of different life events Life Experience Sources (External sources) o Changes that disrupt everyday life o Connection between significant life events, physical and psychological problems o Daily hassles - small daily problems and irritations “add up” in times of stress o Chronic exposure to noise o Crowding increases stress + agression Limitations : o Problems with SRRS o Ignores mediating variables o Ignores cognitive appraisal In order to feel stress you need to perceive a threat Folkman and Lazarus Model Primary appraisal - “Is it a stressor?” Secondary Appraisal - “Will I be able to handle it?” Coping 1. Problem-focused – attempts to modify, reduce, or eliminate the source of stress 2. Emotion-focused – attempts to alter the emotional responses to the stressor Hardiness Model Focuses on individuals who adapt in unusually positive ways to stress 1. Commitment 2. Challenge 3. Control Results in difficult events being viewed less negatively, reducing stress Other Concepts Perceived Control - amount of influence you feel you have over a situation + your reaction to it Explanatory style - internal, stable, global attributions -> more stress Optimism - people with a positive outlook are healthier, live longer + are
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Psych Study Guide 4[1] - Psych Study Guide 4 Chapter 16:...

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