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Psychology Study Guide2[1]

Psychology Study Guide2[1] - :Exam2 Ch7:LEARNING Learning...

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Psychology Study Guide: Exam 2 Ch 7: LEARNING Learning - relatively permanent change in behavior, or potential behavior, that results from experience Conditioning - association between environmental stimuli and the organisms responses Orienting response - inborn tendency to notice and respond to novel or surprising events Habituation - decline in tendency to notice and respond to an event that has become familiar through exposure Sensitization - increased responsiveness to a repeated event CLASSICAL CONDITIONING- procedures used to investigate learning relations Between events and stimuli Pavlov’s dogs 1. Unconditioned Stimulus (US) - stimulus that automatically leads to an observable response prior to any training Ex: food 2. Unconditioned Response (UR) - observable response produced automatically as a result of stimulus Ex: salivation 3. Conditioned Stimulus (CS) - neutral stimulus that is paired with an unconditioned stimulus Ex: feeder’s footsteps 4. Conditioned Response (CR) - acquired response produced by conditioned stimulus in anticipation of unconditioned stimulus Ex: dog salivates when hearing feeder’s footsteps CS-US Connection CS signals that US is about to occur CS should come before US US follow closely in time Acquisition - condition response becoming stronger with repeated CS-US pairings Extinction - presenting a CS repeatedly without US loss in responding Spontaneous recovery - recovery of extinguished condition response after period of no CS Stimulus generalization - new stimulus produces a response similar to one produced by CS Stimulus discrimination - response to new stimuli is different to one produced by CS Second-order conditioning - procedure in which established CS is used to
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condition a second neutral stimulus - Applications: Systematic desensitization - a technique that uses counter conditioning and extinction to reduce the fear and anxiety that have become associated with a specific object or event Aversive conditioning - replacing a positive reaction to a harmful stimulus with something negative, Ex: alcohol feeling nauseous OPERANT CONDITIONING- procedure for studying how organisms learn about the consequences of their own voluntary actions Law of Effect - responses followed by a satisfying consequence will be stronger, responses followed by an unsatisfying consequence will be weaker Reinforcement - response of consequences that increase likelihood of responding similarly again 1. Positive - event that when presented after response, increases likelihood of occurrence 2. Negative - event that when removed after response, increases likelihood of occurrence Punishment - consequences that decrease likelihood of response occurring again 1. Positive 2. Negative Shaping - procedure of demanding behavior closer to the desired one before reward is given Avoidance training - a situation in which a response can prevent the delivery of an aversive stimulus, Ex. Rat learning to jump over barrier to avoid shock Escape training - a situation in which a response can reduce or eliminate an unpleasant stimulus, Ex. Rat escapes ongoing shock by jumping over a
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