Psychology Study Guide 1[1]

Psychology Study Guide 1[1] - Psychology Study Guide...

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Psychology Study Guide Introduction: Chapter 1 Psychology - scientific study of behavior and mind Mind- Contents + process of subjective experience: Sensations, thoughts, + emotions Behavior- observable actions, activities of cells, thoughts, + feelings TYPES Clinical psychologists- specialize in diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems Psychiatrists- PhD- medical doctor who specializes in diagnosis and treatment of psychological patterns Applied psychologists- psychologists who extend the principles of scientific psychology to practical problems in the world Empiricism- idea that knowledge comes directly from experience NATIVISM - idea that some knowledge is innate, or present at birth - cause + effect - intelligence - personality - Gestalt psychology- movement proposing that certain organizing principles of perception are innate - Emotion Darwinism- theory of evolution + Natural selection NATURE VS. NURTURE - many characteristics do have a genetic component, experience shapes how these characteristics develop, BOTH MATTER RESEARCH STRUCTURALISM - an early school of psychology that tried to understand the mind by breaking it down into basic parts _ Elements- Sensation + Feeling 1. Identify elements 2. Discover how they combine to form wholes _ Systematic introspection- Technique used to study the mind, required people to look inward and describe their own experiences EX: taste- salty, bitter, sour, sweet _ Wilhelm Wundt- immediate conscious experience
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-Student was Titchener who actually said the 2 main goals FUNCTIONALISM - an early school of psychology that believed the proper way to understand mind + behavior is to first analyze their function and purpose - William James - Based these ideas on Darwin- adaptive mental process BEHAVIORISM - proposed that only proper subject matter of psychology is observable behavior rather than immediate conscious experience - Problems with introspection- mental events cannot be publicly observed and thus fall outside the domain of science - Emphasis on animals - John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner CLINICAL PSYCHOANALYSIS- Freud’s theory of mind and system therapy (“Talk Therapy”) - Unconscious behavior, dreams - Childhood experiences - Sigmund Freud HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY - Movement focusing on people’s unique capacities for choice, responsibility, and growth - Reaction against Freud - Humans are basically good - Carl Rogers Eclectic Approach- idea that it’s useful to select information from several sources rather than to rely on single perspectives/ thoughts Cognitive Revolution- shift away from strict behaviorism, characterized by new interest in fundamental problems of consciousness and internal mental processes Evolutionary Psychology- Movement proposing that we’re born with innate mechanisms
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Psychology Study Guide 1[1] - Psychology Study Guide...

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