MIDTERM REVIEW

MIDTERM REVIEW - Comm 325 Rhetorical Criticism Review Sheet...

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Comm 325 Rhetorical Criticism Review Sheet Yevegeniya Shukhman Rhetoric: S&P Ch 1 - Aristotle defines rhetoric as “the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion” - Intentional application of all the available means of persuasion in courtrooms, political speeches, ceremonial events. - Aristotle thought it was a legitimate tool of democracy. 5 functions of rhetoric 1. Rhetoric Typically Addresses Public Audiences - Messages are created to address audiences, more or less clearly defined. - Each message is directed toward a viewer, listener, or reader - Editorial addresses readers of a newspaper 2. Rhetoric is Purposeful - Each message seeks to affect its audience’s beliefs, values, or actions. - MORE than sharing information for information’s sake - Some say Vietnam War Memorial affects viewers’ attitudes, emotions, and beliefs about the Vietnam War and its soldiers. - Rhetorical messages seek to impact attitudes and beliefs - Infomercial seeks to affect a viewer’s behavior. - YET some messages are more or less intentional in their persuasive purpose. - According to Comm. Scholar Roderick Hart rhetorical messages can be viewed on a continuum with more obviously persuasive messages 1
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other. - HOWEVER, we might place messages that function rhetorically without necessarily intending to do so. - THUS intentionality is not necessarily a characteristic of rhetoric. - Purpose of author may or may NOT be related to rhetorical message. - NOT rhetorical are statistics, raw information. 3. Rhetoric Responds to and Creates more or Less Obvious Social Concerns -Speech by a senator supporting a bill on gun control may be a response to a social concern about violence. -RHETORICAL SITUATIONS are social problems that humans attempt to solve through rhetoric -Rhetorical messages presume that the audiences have some degree ( more or less) of choice in their response. -Rhetoric is two-sided: For as much rhetoric responds to social concerns, it is also instrumental in creation of social concenerns (ie Hitler’s speeches, Trotzky) 4. Rhetoric Relies on Verbal and Nonverbal Symbols - Strategically constructed by authors through verbal and nonverbal symbols. - Today we would include television images, verbal and nonverbal symbols on Internet, music, architecture as variations of forms of discourse that respond to social problems and seek to affect public audiences. - Speech or editorial relies on linguistic symbols (language) whereas the Vietnam War Memorial relies heavily on visual, nonverbal symbols such as color, shape, location. - THUS, symbols of all sorts are used in rhetorical messages. 5.
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This note was uploaded on 04/24/2008 for the course COMM 325 taught by Professor Wilson during the Spring '08 term at Tulane.

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MIDTERM REVIEW - Comm 325 Rhetorical Criticism Review Sheet...

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