Anth 312 Review

Anth 312 Review - Getting Pregnant Regular cycle length =...

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Getting Pregnant Regular cycle length = 28 days General norm = 26 – 35 Menstruation Ovulation Menstruation Day 1 Is the 1 st day of menstrual bleeding Days 3 – 5: menstruation o Pituitary gland releases FSH which ripens the eggs/follicles o Prior to ovulation we have an LH surge which causes rupture and the egg release o Follicle is released at ovulation Estrogen increases which strengthens and prepares uterine lining (profilerative phase) Days 15 – 28: luteal phase, progesterone continues to build uterine lining o Corpus luteum: responsible for progesterone Pregnant – continues to produce progesterone Not pregnant – withers, progesterone drops which leads to menstruation o Luteal phase takes 11 to 16 days and is consistent – there is no variation with in individuals Less than 11 days is problematic for pregnancy and is considered a luteal phase defect Sperm Production = 70 days to produce Continues throughout life, constant conveyor belt process 90 seconds after ejaculation, sperm are already in cervix o Before ovulation – sperm get stuck in special mucus o Around ovulation – mucus helps sperm o After ovulation – mucus plugs cervix Sperm travel through uterus with constant contractions to help push them into fallopian tube within the first 5 minutes o The uterus is porous, there are many nooks and crannies they may stop at 5 days maximum prior to ovulation sperm may fertilize (rare) Sperm in the center of the ejaculate survive Journey Egg enters the tube within a few minutes of breaking out of ovary Pushed to uterus by contractions Timing is everything – sperm live max 5 days beyond the cervix, egg lives max 24 hours and even if intercourse is timed perfectly there is only a 30% chance of pregnancy o Sex every other day from day 10 to day 17 o Ovulation predictor kit: predicts the rise of LH Fertilization can occur anywhere in the fallopian tube but further up towards the ovary is best 7 to 10 days later the egg is implanted into uterus, release of HCG (hormone which home pregnancy tests detect) Miscarriage – Spontaneous Abortion Loss of pregnancy prior to 28 weeks (average pregnancy is 40 weeks) o Pregnancy is dates to 1 st day of last menstrual period Most occur in first 8 weeks unless something formed later like the liver Are miscarriage rates increasing? o Most people are putting of pregnancy o More technology to say you are pregnant and lost it where before you wouldn’t know you were pregnant in the first place o Environmental factors, perhaps stress o Diets (more miscarriages occur with a poor diet) 2006 Study concluded that women with parents over 35 years old have 3 times as many miscarriage than those with partners younger than 25
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Chromosome abnormalities increase 17% each decade with sperm, often older women have older husbands, or 35 year old woman will have a 45 year old husband and both may be faulted Causes of miscarriage
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Anth 312 Review - Getting Pregnant Regular cycle length =...

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