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Chapter 4 Glossary - Chapter 4 Glossary Terms...

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Chapter 4: Glossary Terms Photosynthesis- the process by which plants use energy from the sun to produce energy-yielding compounds, such as glucose. Respiration- the use of oxygen; in the human organism, the inhalation of carbon dioxide; in cells, the oxidation (electron removal) of food molecules to obtain energy ATP- adenosine triphosphate. The main energy currency for cells. ATP energy is used to promote ion pumping, enzyme activity, and muscular contraction Coenzyme- compound that combines with an inactive protein, called an apoenzyme, to form a catalytically active enzyme called a holoenzyme. In this manner, coenzymes aid in enzyme function o NAD- o FAD- Glycolysis- the metabolic pathway that converts glucose into two molecules of pruvic acid, with the net gain of two ATP and two NADH + 2H + Gluconeogenesis- the production of new glucose by metabolic pathways in the cell. Amino acids derived from protein usually provide the carbons for this glucose
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