Chapter 4 Study Guide

Chapter 4 Study Guide - by allosteric mechanisms, by...

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Study Guide Chapter 4 1. What is the location in the cell of the major energy metabolic pathways? Glycolosis- cytosol/cytoplasm Citric Acid Cycle- mitrochondria Electron Transport Chain- mitochondria 2. What are the major compounds at the beginning and end of each metabolic pathway? Glycolosis 6-carbon glucose two 3-carbon pyruvates Citric Acid Cycle acetyl-CoA four-carbon oxaloacetate Electron Transport Chain Glucose + O2 CO2 + H2O (yields 30-32 ATP) Or, basically, Glucose ATP and water 3. What is lactase and how and where is it formed? Lactase is an enzyme made by absorptive cells of the small intestine; this enzyme digests lactose to glucose and galactose. 4. What is ATP and how is its concentration maintained in a cell? ATP is energy. ATP production in an aerobic eukaryotic cell is tightly regulated
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Unformatted text preview: by allosteric mechanisms, by feedback effects, and by the substrate concentration dependence of individual enzymes within the glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. 5. What is the net production of ATP in glycolysis using glucose? 2 ATP 6. How are carbohydrate, fat, and protein broken down to produce energy? First, they are broken down into their building blocks. Protein is broken down into amino acids, starches are broken down into simple sugars, and fats (lipids) are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol. Then, they are converted to acetyl-CoA Finally, through the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain, ATP (energy) is produced....
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Chapter 4 Study Guide - by allosteric mechanisms, by...

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