ARH301-South Asia - 1/19/08 Lecture #9: Ancient South Asia:...

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1/19/08 Lecture #9 : Ancient South Asia: Overview I. Harappa Civilization : 2300-1750 BCE Indus River Valley Civilization Indo-European Tradition( IE)—Greeks and India, whole area speak similar languages, there are no documentation of the migration of the ppl, but they all have similar grammatical, structure, and sound o Ashva-equus—same sounds in the words= relationship b/t Greek and Sanscript Akshita shravas—aphthiton kleos = whenever there’s the ksh in San script, the phth sound is in Greece Indo-Iranian Languages —Indians, Iranians, Metany, started north of India and spread to the Iraq peninsula o Indra and Varuna= split and one went to India India o First to domesticate horses o Harappan Civilization (Indus Valley Civilization)(Mohenjo Daro)—earliest, little remains Aryans spread to the North (1500 BC) - “noble people” first record of language o Built a religion around hospitality to Gods, sacrificing animals for exchange for favors o Rigveda (1500-1100BC)- earliest text to understand this civilization o Ritual –fire, soma, Rigveda o Come with this sacrificial tradition and fuse with the civilization that didn’t o Yajuveda, Samzaveda, Atharvaveda = other religious text Religious Traditions o Brahnas , warriors, and kings= had a symbiotic relationship o Asceticism —renounce everything in the world and trying to aspire for heaven o Internalization of the Fires = tapas moksa =liberation, didn’t need the priesthood, go out in the world and attain your own direct access to the gods o Karma - anything you do in the world has an consequence in the world, need to be reborn because one lifetime isn’t enough time to repent for the stuff you did in the last life time o The Buddha - Prince of the Shakka people from Nepal= Jain and Buddhism built on the tradition of Karma etc. Buddha- the enlightened one Bodhisattra— Nirvana —extinction of the 3 fires ( greed, hatred and delusion ), meditation seek to extinguish the fires and achieve of, denunciation of the idea of creation of the “fires/tapas” Alexander the Great 326 BC o Got up to the Indus River and it was the monsoon season and the soldiers didn’t want to fight anymore Candragupta Maury—general who fought against Alexander and became very famous, o His son Ashok expanded the empire and killed 50000 people in one afternoon. Adopted Buddhism and kicked Brahms out Created patronages with monasteries, set up pillars around his kingdom with his moral code, took away all the sacrifice of animals Shungas rise(185-73 BC) o Ashoka dies and a fight for power emerges== brought back sacrifice and priesthood o Lost lot of the empire and for the priest to perform their ceremonies, they gave the people land grants and spread caste system, sacrifice, etc. while incorporating local practice Hinduism Shiva, Vishnu, Devi = 3 Gods that Hindu surrounds Kushan Empire (100-300 CE) o Northern India, conquered some Greek areas and spread Buddhism and it mixes with Greco –indo influences o Rudradaman Gupta (Golden Age)
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ARH301-South Asia - 1/19/08 Lecture #9: Ancient South Asia:...

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