lecture14drugres+vac

lecture14drugres+vac - 1 Bio 12D Lecture 14 I. Multi-drug...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–5. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: 1 Bio 12D Lecture 14 I. Multi-drug resistance II. Vaccines Week 9 Reading Vaccination of humans Encyclopedia of Life Science Multidrug Resistant Staph Aureus: NY Times Link to Chapter in Alberts et al The Cell: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?highlight=HIV&rid=mboc 4.section.4638#4672 Homework 7 due Thursday, March 6th 2 3 http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/05/health/research/05flu.html 4 5 Many bacterial toxins use same two part strategy TOXIN repetitive ENTRY targeted Whooping cough Blue part binds intestinal wall cells Injects red part, toxin, into cell Red part is enzyme that can repeatedly carry out toxic effect 6 USDA Influenza Virus Drift and Shift No RNA proofreading 1 in 10,000 mutated Influenza ~10,000 nucleotides ~Every virus a mutant Review 7 Cholera Toxin (protein from V. cholera ) If cholera makes it through stomach acid to intestines: Two Part Strategy Blue part binds intestinal wall cells Injects red part, toxin, into cell Red part is enzyme that can repeatedly turn a controlled signal molecule on, which pumps salt OUT of intestinal lining cells Bacteria Review 8 History of Antibiotics Bactericidal soil mold compound penicillin discovered during WWII, saved tens of thousands Since then, one million tons of penicillin used worldwide! Resistance began to emerge just a few years after discovery of penicillin 9 Antibiotic targets in bacteria Inhibition of Cell wall synthesis Penicillins Cephalosporins Carbapenems Daptomycin Glycopeptides DNA synthesis Fluoroquinolones RNA synthesis Rifampin Protein synthesis Macrolides Aminoglycosides Oxazolidonones Folic acid synthesis Sulfonamides Trimethoprim Copyright 2006 Dr. Salme Taagepera, 10 11 Staph Infections 85% of multi-drug resistant staph (MRSA) in hospitals Multi-drug resistant staph killed more Americans than AIDS in 2005 (~19,000 people!) Limit indiscriminate use of antibiotics:- medicine, soaps and farm animals Pick up pharmaceutical research into new antibiotics Staphylococcus aureus 12 Restrict unnecessary antibiotic use >50% of antibiotics used in US for healthy farm animals Normal soap and warm water or alcohol based cleaning avoid selecting for bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics http://www.circleofresponsibility.com/uploads/gallery/environment/antimicrobial.jpg 13 Antibiotic research Since the 1940s, 10 classes of antibiotics have been discovered Only two in the past 40 years (!) Resistance emerges within years of first use of a new antibiotic Not many good options left to combat resistant bacteria! 14 How do soap + water, as opposed to antibiotic hand- gels, avoid promoting antibiotic resistant bacteria?...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 04/24/2008 for the course BIOL 12d taught by Professor Whiteson during the Winter '08 term at UC Irvine.

Page1 / 14

lecture14drugres+vac - 1 Bio 12D Lecture 14 I. Multi-drug...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 5. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online