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lecture13TB - Bio 12D Lecture 13 I Infectious Disease...

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1 Bio 12D Lecture 13 I. Infectious Disease TUBERCULOSIS Week 8 Reading “Who put the tubercle in tuberculosis?” Nature reviews microbio “Emerging infectious disease”: J Clinical Investigation “1918 Flu Virus Reconstruction”: Washington Post Homework 6 due today Homework 7 due next Thursday, Mar 6th 2 Atherosclerosis Old view Atherosclerosis is a plumbing problem: fat-laden gunk gradually builds up on the surface of passive artery walls New view Inflammation fuels the buildup of plaque and causes plaque ruptures , leading to blood clots Copyright © 2006 Dr. Salme Taagepera Review Normal part of aging, starts in teenage years 3 High blood pressure High blood pressure Birth defect Atherosclerosis Review 4 (Illustration © Russell Kightley Media, www.rkm.com.au.)
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5 The scenario the world is dreading: A human cell is infected by human and avian influenza at the same time, and the two strains recombine to deadly effect. In the above artist’s rendering, the H5N1 avian flu virus with the eight dark blue RNA segments (at the right) and the human flu virus with eight orange RNA segments (middle) simultaneously enter the cell and spill out their contents, which travel into the nucleus (lower right), where they replicate. New copies of the viral RNA, represented by the thin blue and orange chains at lower left, stream back out into the cell and gather below the cell’s outer membrane, where they assemble into new virus particles that bud out from the cell. During this assembly process, the segments from the avian flu strain (dark blue) may mix with segments from the human flu strain (orange) to produce new viruses that combine genetic elements from both strains (note the two orange segments that have joined the six blue in the virus particles at drawing’s left). A combination of these different genomes that is fatal to humans as well as to birds and easily contagious among humans could give rise to a deadly pandemic. (Illustration © Russell Kightley Media, www.rkm.com.au.) 6 Flu virus sticks to cell (I.e. lung) HA=hemagglutinin (acidic) Virus membrane Contents of virus spill into cell 7 I. What is TB? II. Brief history of TB III. Modern Diagnosis, Treatment and Challenges 8 I. What is TB? Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis , which most commonly affects the: lungs (pulmonary TB) central nervous system (meningitis) lymphatic system circulatory system genitourinary system bones and joints Copyright © 2006 Dr. Salme Taagepera,
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9 Symptoms of TB In addition to these general outward signs of the disease, tuberculosis traditionally involves chest pain, labored breathing, coughing (sometimes releasing bloody sputum), sweating, fever, and a decrease in weight.
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