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I. Elements K9

I. Elements K9 - Elements I Music-vital part of human...

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Elements I Music—vital part of human society o Provides entertainment, emotional release Heard almost everywhere in modern life o Recorded music innovation of 20 th Century o Music “on demand” available to almost anyone Live performance – special excitement o Experience affected by emotional state of both performer and audience Evaluating music performances o Background music vs. alert, active listening o Perceptive listening enhances enjoyment Knowledge of musical elements enhances perception Chapter 1—Sound: Pitch, Dynamics, and Tone Color o Our world filled with sounds Sounds can be pleasant or unpleasant Humans able to focus on specific sounds Can ignore sounds that do not interest us o Sound Begins as result of a vibrating object Transmitted through medium as vibration Perceived by eardrums as vibrations Impulses sent to brain for processing o Music: organization of sounds in time o Four main properties of musical sounds Pitch Dynamics Tone color Duration Pitch: Highness or Lowness of Sound o Determined by frequency of vibration Fast vibration = high pitch Slow vibration = low pitch Generally, smaller vibrating objects = higher pitches o In music, definite pitch is a tone Tones have specific frequencies 440 cycles (vibrations) = “A” pitch Irregular vibrations create sounds of indefinite pitch o Interval: difference in pitch between 2 tones Octave: doubling/halving of frequency Tones an octave apart are the same pitch letter name Tones an octave apart seem to blend together o Western music divides octave into 12 tones 1
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Non-western music may divide into a different number of tones Most western music based on a scale of 8 tones o Range: distance between voice or instrument’s highest & lowest possible pitch Dynamics o Relative loudness of a sound Related to amplitude of vibration producing sound Changes in dynamics may be sudden or gradual o Accent: tone played louder than tones near it o Italian terms used to indicate dynamics pianissimo pp very soft piano p soft mezzo piano mp moderately soft mezzo forte mf moderately loud forte f loud fortissimo ff very loud Extremes: ppp, pppp, fff, ffff Crescendo: gradually become louder Decrescendo (or diminuendo): gradually become softer Tone Color o Also called timbre : quality of a sound Can be bright, dark, mellow, etc o Changes in tone color create variety and contrast o Tone color can add to continuity Specific melodies might have specific tone colors o Composers frequently blend sounds of instruments to create new tone colors o Modern electronic instruments allow for a vast array of different tone colors Listening Outlines, Vocal Music Guides, and the Properties of Sound o Intended to be read while listening to the music o Listening outlines & vocal music guides: Listening outline: points out notable musical sounds Vocal music guide: vocal text with margin comments
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I. Elements K9 - Elements I Music-vital part of human...

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