III The Baroque Period

III The Baroque Period - Part IV The Baroque Period...

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Part IV The Baroque Period (1600-1750) Time-Line Shakespeare: Hamlet-1600 Cervantes: Don Quixote – 1605 Jamestown founded – 1607 Galileo: Earth orbits Sun – 1610 King James Bible – 1611 Newton: Principia Mathematica – 1687 Witchcraft trials in Salem, Mass. – 1692 Defoe: Robinson Crusoe – 1719 Swift: Gulliver’s Travels - 1726 The Baroque Style Time of flamboyant lifestyle Baroque style “fills the space” Visual Art Implies motion Busy Architecture Elaborate Change in approach to science Experiment-based, not just observation Inventions and improvements result Chapter 1: Baroque Music Period begins with rise of Opera Opera: a play with speaking parts sung Period ends with death of Johann Sebastian Bach (1750) Two musical giants: Other important composers: Claudio Monteverdi Henry Purcell Arcangelo Corelli Antonio Vivaldi Baroque Period divided into 3 phases: Early: 1600-1640 Rise of opera Text with extreme emotion Homophonic to project words Middle: 1640-1680 New musical style spreads from Italy throughout Europe Use of the church modes gives way to major and minor scales Rise of importance of instrumental music Late: 1680-1750 Instrumental music becomes as important as vocal music Elaborate polyphony dominates Most Baroque music we hear comes from the Late Baroque Characteristics of Baroque Music
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Unity of Mood Expresses one mood per piece Rhythm Rhythmic patterns are repeated throughout Melody Opening melody heard again and again Continuous expanding of melodic sequence Dynamics Dynamics constant with abrupt changes Texture Late Baroque mostly polyphonic Extensive use of imitation Chords and the Basso Continuo Emphases on the way chords follow each other Bass part considered foundation of the harmony Basso Continuo: Bass part with numbers to represent chords Words and Music Text painting/word painting continues Words frequently emphasized by extension through many rapid notes The Baroque Orchestra Based on violin family of instruments Small by modern standards Varying instrumentation Combinations of strings, woodwinds, brass, and tympani Nucleus was basso continuo Composers specified instrumentation Baroque Forms Instrumental music frequently made up of contrasting movements Movement a piece complete in itself part of a larger work Performed with pause between movements Unity of mood within individual movements Movements often contrast with each other Common basic forms: Ternary – ABA Binary – AB AAB ABB AABB Chapter 2: Music in Baroque Society Music written to order: New music, not old-fashioned, was desired Courts: Music and musical resources indicated affluence Court Music Director:
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Good prestige, pay and other benefits Still considered a skilled servant Some aristocrats were musicians Church music was very elaborate Most people heard music only in church Some, though few, public opera houses Music careers taught by apprenticeship
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III The Baroque Period - Part IV The Baroque Period...

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