unit 4 take two - Chapter 12 I. Recombinant DNA Technology...

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Chapter 12 I. Recombinant DNA Technology a. in the 1970’s research on e. coli led to the development of recombinant DNA technology, a set of laboratory techniques for combining genes from different sources into a single DNA molecule b. biotechnology-the use of organisms to perform practical tasks. c. DNA carrying a gene of interest is taken from a cell of one organism and inserted into the DNA of a host cell d. The host cell now contains recombinant DNA, a molecule cayying DNA from more than one source. e. Transgenic organism/genetically modified organism: a host that carries recombinant DNA f. As a GMO host multiplies its cells, it copies the gene of interest along with the rest of its DNA II. From Humulin to Genetically Modified Foods (Making Humulin) a. Humulin: world’s first genetically engineered pharmaceutical product. It is an insulin that has been produced by genetically modified bacteria b. Because human insulin is not readily available, diabetes was historically treated using insulin from cows and pigs c. In 1978 they began working on genetically engineered insulin. d. Researchers synthesized individual pieces of DNA and linked them together to form the desired insulin genes e. Under proper growing conditions the transgenic bacteria cranked out large quantities of the human protein f. Human growth hormone is another human protein produced by transgenic bacteria. g. Yeast and mammalian cells can also be sued to produce medically valuable human proteins. h. Vaccine: a harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen that is used to prevent an infectious disease i. One approach to vaccine production is to use genetically engineered cells to make large amounts of a protein molecule that is found on the pathogen’s outside surface. III. Genetically Modified Foods a. in the U.S. roughly half the corn crop and over three quarters of the soybean and cotton crops are genetically modified IV. Farm animals and “Pharm” Animals a. because transgenic animals are difficult to produce researchers may create a single transgenic animal and then clone it. b. The resulting herd of genetically identical transgenic animals all carrying a recombinant human gene could then serve as a grazing pharmaceutical factory—pharm animals. c. Transgenic animals are currently used only to produce proteins not food.
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V. Recombinant DNA Techniques a. to manipulate genes in the laboratory, biologists use bacterial plasmids, small circular DNA molecules separate from the much larger bacterial chromosome. b. Plasmids carry genes c. When they are taken up plasmids act as vectors, DNA carriers that move genes from one cell to another. d. When the bacterial cell divides, the cell’s replication machinery copies the plasmid e. Any foreign DNA that has been inserted will be replicated along with the rest of the plasmid. f.
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This note was uploaded on 04/24/2008 for the course BSC 2007 taught by Professor Herrera during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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unit 4 take two - Chapter 12 I. Recombinant DNA Technology...

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