c108 study guide - What is Crime? Legalistic: Human...

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What is Crime? Legalistic: Human conduction in violation of the criminal laws of a state, federal government, or local jurisdiction that has the power to make such laws Political: Process of law creation and criminalization of behavior, defines in power structures Sociological: Antisocial act of such a nature that its repression is necessary or is supposed to be necessary to the preservation of the existing system of society Psychological (maladaptive): form of social maladjustment which can be designated as a more or less pronounced difficulty that the individual has in reacting to the stimuli of his environment Crime and Deviance Deviant behavior: human activity that violates social norms What should be criminal? 1. consensus perspective: laws should be enacted to criminalize given forms of behavior when members of society generally agree that such laws are necessary 2. pluralist perspective: characterized by shared values, norms, and belief systems What do criminologists do? One who studies crime, criminals, and criminal behavior (specially skilled investigators, crime laboratory technicians, fingerprint experts, crime scene photographers, and examination of the physical evidence of the crime scene. Contrasting to criminal justice professionals What is criminology? Paul Topinard, differentiate the study of criminal body types within the field of anthropology from other biometric pursuits. Three definitions: disciplinary (field study or body of knowledge), causative (uncovering the underlying causes of crime), and scientific (scientific nature of contemporary criminology) Criminology: an interdisciplinary profession built around the scientific study of crime and criminal behavior, including their manifestations causes, legal aspects, and control. 1. Why do crime rates vary 2. Why do individuals differ to criminality 3. Why is there variation in reactions to crime 4. What are the possible means of controlling criminality The social context of crime Social problems perspective on crime and social responsibility, social relativity: social events are interpreted differently according to the cultural experiences and personal interests of the initiator, the observer, or the recipient. Causes and consequences of crime background causes of crime are Contributions and signify more immediate propensities and predispositions of the actors involved in a situation are Input (physical features of the setting in which a specific crime takes place). Background contributions and immediate inputs contribute and shape crime. Criminal justice system contributes to crime through its failure to 1. Prevent criminal activity 2. Adequately identify and inhibit specific offenders prior to their involvement in crime and 3. Prevent the release of convicted criminals who later become repeat offenders. Crime arise out of
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c108 study guide - What is Crime? Legalistic: Human...

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