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Unformatted text preview: Final Exam - Tues Dec. 11 @ 9 - 11:30 (Bring Scantron) Anthropology - 11/07/07 Beliefs and Religion 1. Three Parts of Religion 2. Ritual Arnold van Gennep and Rites of Passage Malinowski Durkheim Turner 3. Magic, Sorcery, and Witchcraft Evans-Pritchard 4. Ethnographic approaches 1. Three Parts of Religion 1. The beliefs about nature of supernatural powers (What are spirits?) 2. The teachings and traditions of those beliefs. 3. Rituals are intended to influence those powers and for benefit of the group. 2. Ritual - any repeated pattern of behavior (routine). Organized behavior used to influence supernatural power. Example: Prayer, Communion, Baptism, Repetitive Chanting. Arnold van Gennep : Rites of passage (Leminole Stage): Rites of adulthood, mortuary. Malinowski : Obsessed with functions. Rituals have social functions Durkheim : Ritual ties people together, it communicates values of beliefs to community Turner : Ritual orients us to supernatural beings, connects whole community to spirit world 3. Magic, Sorcery, and Witchcraft Magic - Taking practical measures to influence supernatural. Sorcery - Performance of rites of spells intended to influence supernatural forces to harm others. Sorcerers manipulate objects as imitative and contagious (Imitative example: Voodoo Dolls) Witchcraft - Witches use psychic powers to harm others. Witches may posses powers unknowingly, cant always be blamed for misdeeds. o Evans-Pritchard (1930s to 40s) - Wrote Witchcraft, oracles, and magic among the Azande in 1937 about the Azande Tribe in Africa o Azande believed magic was used for vengeance but also enforced order in the community 4. Ethnographic Approaches Deals with questions that cant be scientifically answered Anthro explanations for why witchcraft continues to exist in world: o Intellectual (Logic)...
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