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Biology Notes - Final Thurs Dec 13 2:00 4:00(Lab Lecture*40...

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Final - Thurs, Dec. 13 @ 2:00 - 4:00 (Lab + Lecture) ***40 Questions from Co-dominance until end of semester*** ***10 Questions from prior material*** Final Exam Notes Pleiotropy  - Alleles at a single locus may have effect on two or more  traits. Marfan Syndrome  - Mutation in gene for fibrillin (connective tissue)  affects skeleton, cardiovascular system, lungs, eyes, and skin. Epistasis  - Interaction between products of gene pairs. Continuous Variation A more or less continuous range of small differences in a given trait  among individuals. Polygenic Traits      - Traits affected by genes at more than one loci. The more genes a trait is affected by, the more continuous the variation.  (Ex. Height) * * * * * Chapter 12 - Human Genetics Humans have 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes Y Chromosome Contains master gene for sex determination - if present, testes form Contains very few genes Carried by males X Chromosome More genes than Y chromosome, many deal with nonsexual traits Genes on X chromosome can be expressed in both males and females Humans are much more difficult to study than other organisms (ex. Pea plants,  fruit flies) Pedigree  - Chart of genetic connections among individuals - used to follow traits  in humans through generations and determine the genotypes of individuals. Family pedigrees are used to….
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X-Linked Inheritance Trait is carried on the X chromosome Appears in males more than females, male cannot inherit from his father  (Ex. Colorblindness, hemophilia) Autosomal Recessive Inheritance      - Two recessive alleles must be  present for trait to be displayed. Recessive disorders      - Disorders that are carried on recessive genes -  parents may be carriers (Ex. Cystic fibrosis, Sickle Cell disease, Albinism) Dominant Disorders      - Carried on dominant alleles o Progeria      - Special type of dominant disorder - arises as the result  of a spontaneous mutation. o Neurofibromatosis      – Causes bumps and discoloration on and  under the skin - can cause extreme disfigurement. Aneuploidy      - 1 more or 1 fewer chromosomes than normal o Many miscarriages are aneuploids (Ex. Down’s syndrome - Extra  chromosome where 21 st  pair of homologous chromosomes is  normally located) Non-disjunction      - Chromosome pairs or sister chromatids fail to separate  = causes abnormal number of chromosomes in gametes.
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