Terms - Four Fields of Anthropology 1) Physical or...

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Four Fields of Anthropology 1) Physical or biological -Studies variations between people, forensics, human development/evolution -Some physical anthropologists study primates; primotologist 2) Archaeology -Focuses on past societies and cultures -Dig through middens (garbage dump) to find artifacts 3) Linguistic -Focuses on language -Emphasizes language use as a universal human/social/cultural phenomenon. 4) Cultural - Focus on the cultures of societies that exist today Aspects/Characteristics of Culture Definition of Culture/Symbols 1) Culture is a system of meanings embedded in symbols . I.e. marriage, religion flags, mythical history -Arbitrary and culturally specific -Meta-language in which we are constantly participating and dialoging. -“Tacit” or unspoken. Feels “natural and automatic to us. -Not “static”, changes overtime. Ethnography/Ethnographer 1) The written account of a culture or society compiled by an anthropologist. 2) A specialist in ethnography Armchair Anthropologists -Remote from actual involvement. 1) Melonowski a. “sit on the veranda” b. participant observation method c. functionalism- indiv. Needs Edward Burnett Tylor 1) Scottish Anthropologist in 1871 -“Primitive culture” - Animism-“spirit worship” -Polytheist- “many gods” -Monotheist-“ one god”
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Henry Lewis Morgan 1) American Anthropologist -Questions of human social organization a) Unilinealism -Evolution from primitive to modern b) three major stages of social evolution proposed in Ancient Society 1877 - Savagery (primitive), barbarism (Asians/Mideast), and civilization (Euro&Anglo) -link to social progress and technological progress - Euro centric (claimed Europeans were the best) Herbert Spencer 1) British Sociologist a)“Principles of Sociology” -minimal government intervention -“ Social Darwinism ” claimed that there were wealthy classes and poor classes due to evolutionary differences. -“Survivor of the Fittest” analyzed human societies as evolving systems o Principle to explain social evolution o The fittest were those who adapted Unilineal Evolution 1) Evolution-like process leading to the social progress. Classical social evolutionists have developed many different theories, known as theories of Unilineal Evolution . a) Edward Burnett Tylor uses three popular religious concepts - Animism – polytheism- monotheism i) Animism: spirit worship ii) Polytheist: belief in more than one god iii) Monotheist: belief in one single god b) Henry Lewis Morgan propose three major stages of social evolution Savage-Barbarian-Civil - divided by technological inventions, - technological progress as a force behind social progress c) Herbert Spencer -society was evolving toward increasing freedom for individuals - Differentiated between military and industrial societies - Used “survival of the fittest” to claim that human social equality was the resort of biological differences.
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* Morgan and Tylor worked with indigenous people whom gave insights of the progression of the stages of cultural evolution
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Terms - Four Fields of Anthropology 1) Physical or...

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