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psych - Exam+#3+study+guide - Study Guide for Psychology...

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Study Guide for Psychology 100, Exam #2 Chapter 11: Cognitive Development Infant perception of the world: o Vision : do not see as well as adults; there is little color, blurry vision, but infants’ sight improves at 6 months. o Hearing : do not hear as well as adults; infants’ hearing begins to improve at 6 mos. o Smell, taste, touch : smell, taste, and feel touch normally; infants prefer sweet tastes, such as milk. Preferential viewing : that infants prefer novel stimuli over familiar stimuli o Infants will “pay attention” to novel stimuli, and when the stimuli become familiar, they pay less attention. This is habituation . o This suggests that infants have some rudimentary memory. Social Referencing : when infants took to their parents’ emotional expressions for clues about the safety or possible danger of their own actions. Habituation or selective-looking method : the method that allows to determine children’s knowledge of physical principles. o Children pay more attention to something that appears to violate physical principles than something that does not, demonstrating that they have an understanding of these physical principles. Object permanence : the principle that objects continue to exist even when out of view. o Object perception : infants at a certain age can see edges, which mark boundaries of objects. o Ghim’s study (1990): infants 3 months old could perceive edges and shapes, and were habituated to a “square” made of four Pac-man shapes. Size constancy : infants perceive something moving away as shrinking o Granrud’s study (1986): infants were showed a new teddy bear until it became familiar; they ignored a familiar bear shown far away and preferred to look at a novel bear (one they had not seen before). Depth perception : infants can perceive depth. o Gibson and Walk’s study (1960): performed the visual cliff test. Infants would not cross a cliff of the same color as the floor, showing that they had depth perception. Non-locomotive, younger infants did not seem to be agitated when they were placed on a cliff’s edge. This suggests that depth perception seems to occur more around the time an infant begins to crawl, which makes sense, because not being able to perceive differences in depth while walking is dangerous from an evolutionary standpoint.
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Face perception : babies prefer to look at human faces even if those faces are already familiar stimuli. They also seem to follow eye movements on the face at 3 months of age. Piaget’s Fundamental Assumptions: o Schemes : the internal representations of the kinds of actions that children perform on particular categories of objects. Example : a child plays around with a rubber ball, and by playing with it, concludes that it bounces when dropped.
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