psych - Exam+#2+study+guide - Study Guide for Psychology...

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Study Guide for Psychology 100, Exam #2 Chapter 4: Basic Processes of Learning Proceduralization : when practicing something that initially requires a high degree of effort results in low effort responses due to repetition of the procedure o Example : learning how to ride bicycle or how to play guitar. Habituation : the decline in the magnitude of a reflexive response when the stimulus is repeated several times in succession. o Example : you jump after being startled by a loud noise that subsequently turns out to be harmless. The loud noise repeats itself later; you become habituated and no longer jump at the noise. o Not all reflexes can be habituated. Explicit : consciously thought about. o Example: intentionally feeling angry over your country; consciously trying not to be prejudiced. Implicit : not consciously thought about. o Example : feeling inspired when looking at the American flag even when one dislikes the nation; stereotypes. Reflexes : automatic, stimulus-response sequences mediated by the nervous system. o Example: knee-jerk response. o Example : a conditioned response. S-R (Stimulus-Response) CONDITIONING PROCEDURE Procedure: neutral stimulus & unconditioned stimulus unconditioned response After procedure: conditioned stimulus conditioned response Example: Procedure: bell & food salivation After procedure : bell salivation ARISTOTLE’S ASSOCIATION BY CONTINGUITY Learning : Stimulus A & Stimulus B Thought of B After learning : Stimulus Thought of B Example: Learning: The word ball & sight of ball mental image of a ball After learning : The word ball mental image of a ball Consider the similarity between Pavlov’s principle of conditioning and Aristotle’s law of association by contiguity. Conditioned Drug Reactions : Stimuli normally present when a drug is taken may, through conditioning, come to induce the symptoms of the drug.
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o Example : you smell a cup of coffee, and the smell alone gives you a lift. o Drug overdoses often occur in environments that the user is not used to. When in a familiar environment, the body produces physiological cues to counter the effects of the drug. In an unfamiliar environment, conditioning does not occur and therefore the “overdose” is only a regular amount that is not inhibited by the body. Extinction : the loss of a conditioned response (“pooping out”) after a period of time. Spontaneous recovery : the recovery of a conditioned response after a longer period of time once extinction has occurred. The reason behind spontaneous recovery is unknown. Generalization : an organism makes a conditioned response to a stimulus similar to the conditioned stimulus. o
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This note was uploaded on 04/24/2008 for the course PSYCH 101B taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '07 term at Washington University in St. Louis.

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psych - Exam+#2+study+guide - Study Guide for Psychology...

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