UGC Final Test - Week 9 Society and Culture in Late 19th Century Europe BEFORE(Medieval Cities Built next to rivers(water washing sewage Population

UGC Final Test - Week 9 Society and Culture in Late 19th...

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Week 9- Society, and Culture in Late 19 th Century Europe BEFORE (Medieval Cities) Built next to rivers (water, washing, sewage) Population 30000-50000 Surrounded by defensive wall (forced to build up vs. out) Narrow haphazard streets (no city planning) Overhanging buildings in street (Dark, Smokey) NO: lighting (dark) or public services (No garbage collection, fire, police, sewers) Jobs: Small craft jobs (smith), no mass employment Around 1800 = CHANGES! Mills are established on rivers = people move from country to city for work= population jump (50000 or 10x that) but city does NOT CHANGE (Same city MORE people) Europe and NE USA in 1 st half 19 th century o England: o 1801 =1.5 million in city (17% population) o 1851 = 6.3 (35%) o 1891 = Health hazards/ black plague Cholera Epidemic London 1846 Caused by bacteria (Vibrio Cholerae) Symptoms: fever, diarrhea (EASILY SPREAD IN WATER THROUGH RIVERS/DRIKING) Very easy to spread due to crowded close city and untreated water/ huge part of population affected Dr. and Medical community believed it was spread by Miasma (bad air) o Thames river London = sewage=bad smell = Parliament on river had to close in hot summer weather Dr. John Snow did not believe this and decided to map out every case of Cholera (dot clusters = source of problem) o Determined it was closer to water sources Disease & Living Condition’s; Improvements Parliamentary reports 1840-1860 o Drinking water regulations & proper drainage Edwin Chadwick: Public health initiatives 1870 Louis Pasteur began to show that miasma wasn’t the cause of disease o GERM THEORY o Microscope and studies of fermentation (beer making) o Anthrax (immunization), sheep, charcoal Joseph Lister tried to limit infections by doing sterile surgery/hand washing Robert Koch: Bacteriologist helped in the understanding of TB, Cholera, and Anthrax Urban Renewal Paris is a prime example o Reconstruction of medieval city (more accessible for garbage collection, firemen, troops)
o Deliberately placed public parks o Broad boulevard in old neighbourhoods Making Travel Easier 1830’s W. Europe and US built railroads city to city Pre rail = horse, foot, boat Post rail = trains stopped in small towns too allowing COMMUTERS Omnibuses (pulled by horse, rode point to point, cheap travel) 1890s electricity is cheap & electic trolleys appear (easier and cheaper) o Easy access to leisure Class Structure 18 th Century had rigid class structure o Nobility held land o Small merchant class o Craftsmen o Everyone else CHANGES: Karl Marx (expectation = 2 sharply defined classes) Reality 3 classes o Upper (landowner & industrialist (wealthy/merchant) o Middle (Technical support, bureaucratic class, owners of businesses) o Lower (Skilled labour and helpers, factory foreman) Middle class: o Growing and booming financially and population size wise o Merchants/ skilled workers o STILL HUGE DIVISION of classes and wealth Cities in 1900 Below: Steel trolley tracks Above: Trolley wires, electric lights, telephone system

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