UGC Final Test - Week 9- Society, and Culture in Late 19th...

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Week 9- Society, and Culture in Late 19thCentury EuropeBEFORE (Medieval Cities)Built next to rivers (water, washing, sewage)Population 30000-50000Surrounded by defensive wall (forced to build up vs. out)Narrow haphazard streets (no city planning)Overhanging buildings in street (Dark, Smokey)NO: lighting (dark) or public services (No garbage collection, fire, police, sewers)Jobs: Small craft jobs (smith), no mass employmentAround 1800 = CHANGES!Mills are established on rivers = people move from country to city for work= population jump(50000 or 10x that) but city does NOT CHANGE (Same city MORE people)Europe and NE USA in 1sthalf 19thcenturyoEngland:o1801 =1.5 million in city (17% population)o1851 = 6.3 (35%)o1891 =Health hazards/ black plagueCholera EpidemicLondon 1846Caused by bacteria (Vibrio Cholerae)Symptoms: fever, diarrhea (EASILY SPREAD IN WATER THROUGH RIVERS/DRIKING)Very easy to spread due to crowded close city and untreated water/ huge part of populationaffectedDr. and Medical community believed it was spread by Miasma (bad air)oThames river London = sewage=bad smell = Parliament on river had to close in hot summerweatherDr. John Snow did not believe this and decided to map out every case of Cholera (dot clusters =source of problem)oDetermined it was closer to water sourcesDisease & Living Condition’s; ImprovementsParliamentary reports 1840-1860oDrinking water regulations & proper drainageEdwin Chadwick: Public health initiatives1870 Louis Pasteur began to show that miasma wasn’t the cause of diseaseoGERM THEORYoMicroscope and studies of fermentation (beer making)oAnthrax (immunization), sheep, charcoalJoseph Lister tried to limit infections by doing sterile surgery/hand washingRobert Koch: Bacteriologist helped in the understanding of TB, Cholera, and AnthraxUrban RenewalParis is a prime exampleoReconstruction of medieval city (more accessible for garbage collection, firemen, troops)
oDeliberately placed public parksoBroad boulevard in old neighbourhoodsMaking Travel Easier1830’s W. Europe and US built railroads city to cityPre rail = horse, foot, boatPost rail = trains stopped in small towns too allowing COMMUTERSOmnibuses (pulled by horse, rode point to point, cheap travel)1890s electricity is cheap & electic trolleys appear (easier and cheaper)oEasy access to leisureClass Structure18thCentury had rigid class structureoNobility held landoSmall merchant classoCraftsmenoEveryone elseCHANGES:Karl Marx (expectation = 2 sharply defined classes)Reality 3 classesoUpper (landowner & industrialist (wealthy/merchant)oMiddle (Technical support, bureaucratic class, owners of businesses)oLower (Skilled labour and helpers, factory foreman)Middle class:oGrowing and booming financially and population size wiseoMerchants/ skilled workersoSTILL HUGE DIVISION of classes and wealthCities in 1900Below: Steel trolley tracksAbove: Trolley wires, electric lights, telephone system

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Term
Spring
Professor
julia

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