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TERM PAPER ASSIGNMENT DUE 12.10 FINAL EXAM - DEC 14TH @ 1PM DESCARTE & HUME ----------------------------------------- 9/17/07 Socrates - has a procedure in questioning people (THE SOCRATIC METHOD AKA THE DIALECTICAL METHOD OF ARGUMENTATION) - the reason why Plato's dialogues take the form they do. Platonic Dialgoes - In the beginning, a particular form of Q. is raised its usually Socrates who raises the Q or someone in the audience. [what is x?] METHOD HAS TWO VARIANTS THAT RESEMBLE EACHOTHER 1. Form is always - WHAT IS [X]? <- a way to clarify ideas Socrates looks for an accurate & precise definition in order to clarify ideas. - Central Q. of dialogues. *DIALOGUE CALLED "MINO"* - Always adopt the answers - what are the other truths? - PROCESS OF ELIMINATION* - sometimes answer to :"What is X?" could be "X is Y." 2. SOCRATIC METHOD - TAKE ANY ANSWER THATS OFFERED AND IF IT LEADS TO A CONTRADICTION THEN IT MEANS FOR REJECTION. - In mathematics, its called NEGATIVE PROOF . - Negative Proof - version whcih has the answer led to contradiction. - Magician - Reduction Absurdity: If you're wrong, I'm right. - Earlier Dialogues that end without an answer are generally SOCRATIC. *DIALOGUES WITH AN ANSWER IS PLATO* - Plato agrees with the Socratic doctrines (when it comes to morality) Plato v. Socrates [Metaphysics] Mathematical ratio 9/19/07 Platonism- apart from everything experience there are "idos" [ideas or forms ->
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independence existing more real] something that resembles our englsh ideas. "Form is more real than the thing itself." Plato is a Nativist [someone who thinks that knowledge is innate; we are born with it] We become born with this ability to know mathematics, but more than that, to know the underlying form or idea of things. Is a circle really a circle? Is a line really a line? Dimensions. . Intellectual Reasoning. . Socrates - "midwife" of ideas; bringing out the ideas that are already contained in others to the world; "I do not teach. I have ideas of my own. .. bring out the ideas of others." Ethical Idealism - universsal set of standards that apply to all human beings at all times simply exists on its own [autonomy of ethics] (resembles religious absolutism) Religious absolutism - universal set of standards derives from some divine power; God/the gods ordained this.<- even the gods must subscribe & are subjected to the obligation of morality "A GOOD MAN NEVER HARMS ANYONE" - SOCRATES - doesnt think that there are any good men in the world - quote is more of an idealization; trying to achieve it since it doesn't exist - there is no absolutely good man "NO MAN DOES EVIL KNOWINGLY" - SOCRATES - Socrates thinks theres a continuity between knowledge and reality - he who knows what is right and he who knows what is wrong will NEVER do what is wrong - when someone does evil it is symptomatic ignorance; lack of knowledge
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